This article describes the various domains in which inequality manifests itself in Tanzania. It outlines the key drivers of inequalities as including wide income gaps, unemployment and a collusion between political and businesses elites that creates political capture and patronage, thus fueling corruption and diverting resources from essential services. The article points out a correlation between access to education and income inequality, and highlights the fact that, despite marginal reduction in poverty, inequality is on the rise.
This article analyzes the key domains of inequalities in Senegal. It underscores the high level of gender disparity in the distribution of unemployment that disproportionately affects women. A relatively efficient education system is nevertheless undermined by large geographically defined access differentials. In terms of infrastructure, the capital Dakar enjoys better access to transportation, schools and health facilities in comparison with rural and other urban zones. Agriculture and informal trade are crucial for reducing youth unemployment
Beyond its core focus on macroeconomic and financial policies, the Fund is increasingly concerned with how income inequality affects growth and macroeconomic stability. Over the last decade, many of the countries that have entered a path of fast economic development and reduced poverty simultaneously experienced a rising gap between the rich and poor. As a result, in many of them, including those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), income inequality has increased. The relationship between growth and inequality is a complex one, given that the causality may go in both directions, and the effect of inequality on growth may change with a country’s stage of development. A growing body of research indicates the adverse implications of inequality for development and macro stability, arguing that it may lead to political and economic instability, weaken support for economic reforms, and undermine progress in education and health (Persson and Tabellini, 1994; Easterly, 2007; Berg, Ostry and Zettelmeyer, 2012; Ostry et al., 2014). Recent empirical work conducted at the Fund confirms this relationship between rising income inequality and its impact on economic growth (Dabla Norris et al., 2015).
One of the most vocal criticisms against the South African higher education system at the postgraduate (doctoral) level has been the charge of a lack of transformation. The term ‘transformation’ has become so ideologised that it has little research or policy value. Perhaps one of the most inappropriate ways to use transformation is as a static concept; for example, to demand that universities must reflect, 20 years after apartheid, the demographics of the current population. What we should learn from this charge of a lack of transformation at postgraduate level is that bad policies have long-lasting consequences and cannot be redressed or wished away in a decade or two.
Social epidemiology models suggest that socioeconomic status (SES) mobility across the life course affects blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SES change between infancy and adolescence, and blood pressure, in young adults, and the impact of early growth on this relationship.
Presentation at the Pan-African Conference on Inequalities and Structural Transformation.
This publication, launched in Nairobi on 15 May 2007, analyses inequality from the perspectives of 8 different sectors of Kenya’s economy. Contributions have been made by some of the leading experts in Kenya. As the first volume in this planned series of publications on inequality in the region, this book carries on from Pulling Apart: Facts and Figures on Inequality in Kenya, which was launched in October 2004 and looked at the status of inequality in Kenya. The publications are part of SID’s programme on Rich and Poor: National Discourses on Poverty, Inequality and Growth .
This publication is part of the Rich and Poor: National Discourses on Poverty, Inequality and Growth Project (RAPP). Basing its contents exclusively on secondary sources, the report captures the facts and presents the portrait of the unequal development of a nation.
This study looks at equity in four sectors: Trade, Media, Education, and Labour. Differing levels of development among the partner states and their respective economies, and differing policies in the various sectors of these countries, have and will inevitably result in imbalances. However, it is the manner in which these asymmetries are managed – in the distribution of benefits and costs, and the sensitivity we demonstrate when they occur that will determine their disruptive or constructive effect. As the regional economies continue to grow, as businesses and firms continue to expand, the EAC and its countries must confront the question of inequality and poverty. Investing heavily in the education, which is a natural equalizer, is vital.
This year’s report at three of the most critical ingredients for transforming a promising economic upturn into a sustained recovery and lasting human development – jobs, justice and equity. The report highlights jobs because livelihoods play such a fundamental role in people’s life-chances – and because Africa urgently needs to create jobs for a growing youth population. It also highlights justice and equity because they are missing from the lives of too many Africans, making the present growth socially unsustainable.