The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted unanimously at the United Nations by world Heads of States and Governments in September 2015 is highly ambitious. If taken seriously it has the potential to change the prevailing development paradigm by re-emphasizing the multidimensional and interrelated nature of sustainable development and its universal applicability.
The Rural Structural Program on the Structural Dimensions of Liberalization in Agriculture and Rural Development is a joint initiative of the World Bank, the French Cooperation (French Development Agency, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Ministry of Foreign, Agricultural Research Centre for International Development—CIRAD) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development. It is managed by the World Bank.
Income per capita in Uganda has doubled in the last 20 years. This remarkable performance has been buoyed by significant aid flows and large external imbalances. Economic growth has been concentrated in non-tradable activities leading to growing external imbalances and a growing gap between rural and urban incomes. Future growth will depend on achieving sufficient export dynamism. In addition, growth faces a number of other challenges: low urbanization rate, rapid rural population growth and high dependency ratios. However, both the dependency ratio and fertility rates have begun to decline recently. Rural areas are also severely overcrowded with low-productivity subsistence agriculture as a pervasive form of production. Commercial agriculture has great possibilities to increase output, but as the sector improves its access to capital, inputs and technology it will shed jobs rather than create them.
This publication, launched in Nairobi on 15 May 2007, analyses inequality from the perspectives of 8 different sectors of Kenya’s economy. Contributions have been made by some of the leading experts in Kenya. As the first volume in this planned series of publications on inequality in the region, this book carries on from Pulling Apart: Facts and Figures on Inequality in Kenya, which was launched in October 2004 and looked at the status of inequality in Kenya. The publications are part of SID’s programme on Rich and Poor: National Discourses on Poverty, Inequality and Growth .
This publication is part of the Rich and Poor: National Discourses on Poverty, Inequality and Growth Project (RAPP). Basing its contents exclusively on secondary sources, the report captures the facts and presents the portrait of the unequal development of a nation.
Inequalities exhibited in Zimbabwe are largely attributed to the racial dominance of the white settlers in the colonial period (1890 -1980) and the manner in which scarce resources are being distributed to and accessed by different groups in the post- colonial period. These inequalities mainly relate to access to land and the labour market as well as the provision of basic social services (health, education, housing and sanitation). Of the above, the land issue has throughout history remained central to racial, income and gender inequality discourse in the country.
The study looks at study the poverty-economic growth nexus in Kenya using the Ravallion-Datt-Shapley approach to decompose changes in poverty into growth and redistribution components; and link institutional factors to poverty and inequality. Pro-poor growth indices and growth incidence curves are used to assess whether economic growth between 1994 and 2006 was pro-poor. The study finds that find that changes in mean income, rather than redistribution accounted for the largest variation in poverty; and establish that economic growth in Kenya is not always accompanied by poverty reduction. In particular, growth was pro-poor over 1997–2006 but less so over 1994–1997; and there are instances where growth seems to have been pro-rich. Furthermore, we find that access to fuel, water, and educational attainment have the largest positive impacts on levels and growth in well-being and are key drivers of inequality. Institutional endowment as well as access to institutional services has important implications for pro-poor growth in Kenya.
This chapter surveys the link between governance and inequalities, tracing the evolution of the Kenyan state and its institutions, and assesses how post-independence politics gave rise to inequities. The ethnic composition of Cabinets is assessed over different regimes and political epochs. The author notes that the need to take care of regional interests, and the number of the large ethnic groups, has informed political governance in Kenya and greatly informed the logic and character of forming governments