This study examines the relationship between structural economic transformation and the economic, social and political dimensions of inequality. It is motivated by the renewed emphasis by policymakers in Africa adopt a more inclusive growth trajectory through commodity based industrialization. Drawing on theoretical and empirical evidence the study shows that structural transformation is not a sufficient condition for inclusive growth. Indeed, even though structural transformation can result in poverty reduction, in the absence of active policies, the latter often coexists with rising inequalities. Active government policies that improve social service delivery, enhance agricultural sector productivity, minimize ethnic and gender inequalities and strengthen social protection programmes are key to an inclusive structural transformation agenda.
Africa experienced robust economic growth over the past two decades, growing at an average annual rate of 4.5 percent. Did this growth lead to substantial improvements in well-being? Did household income rise and poverty fall? Did other dimensions of well-being, including education, health, physical security, and self-determination, improve? Did all countries and population groups benefit equally, or did progress come at the expense of rising inequality? The answers have been unclear, in part because poverty data on Africa are weak.
This report reviews the evidence and provides a unique analysis of the underlying data. It is the first of a two-part volume on poverty in Africa (the second report will explore how to accelerate poverty reduction in the region
This paper considers the International Financial Institutions’ (IFI’s) case for free trade. Section 2 starts by considering trends in poverty and inequality since the late 1970’s when free trade reforms began to be implemented widely. Section 3 then uses some of the insights arrived at in section 2 in considering inequality. The purchasing power parity indexes that cause problems with some poverty estimates systematically bias estimates of inequality downward. Section 4 uses the conclusions arrived at in sections 2 and 3 to argue that IFIs’ case for free trade is not substantiated.Finally, section 5 considers what we can say drawing on lessons learned in the previous sections. This paper concludes with a call for further research into the prospects for ethically acceptable experimental testing of free trade’s impact on poverty and inequality.
This edition of Caritas Europa’s Crisis Monitoring Report shows evidence suggesting that six years after the crisis began in 2008 the economic crisis is still leaving its marks on residents and EU economies. In addition to enormous debt levels with very little economic growth, there are huge numbers of unemployed people and millions of people living in poverty or at risk of poverty. Caritas member organisations in Cyprus, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania and Spain provide concrete examples and testimonies of the lasting impact of the crisis on individuals in these countries.
The Transit Oriented Development (TOD) model is increasingly gaining momentum and becoming widely adopted by many cities in addressing a wide range of spatial development challenges within their communities. Development of this nature advocates for a return to a city form that is compact, higher in density, and supported by strategic nodes that promote public transit ridership and nonmotorized
transport options over auto use. These elements fundamentally constitute the building blocks of TOD. In the wake of this increasing global awareness for TOD, this paper presents empirical findings of TOD perceptions in three nodal areas located along the Louis Botha development corridor in City of Johannesburg (COJ).
Premised on a mixed methods approach, the paper provides an insight into current development typologies in the said corridor while equally interrogating the perceptions of residents toward TOD planning and implementation thereof. The paper also deliberates on the nexus between TOD and place making, out of which a mutually inclusive relationship is established. While the findings of this study reflect a rather poor public awareness of TOD and place making, several other points have been identified. Continued revitalisation programs and design improvements are required. Also, issues of parking planning and management will ultimately require a renewed focus in light of the anticipated Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) service along Louis Botha corridor. The paper culminates in the formulation of a set of TOD key determinants derived from the data analysis exercise. Though not necessarily intended to be standard reference points, the paper emphasizes the importance of these determinants in corridor oriented development.
This report from Oxfam is a stark and timely portrait of the growing inequality which characterizes much of Africa and the world today. Seven out of 10 people live in countries where inequality is growing fast, and those at the top of society are leaving the rest behind.
Addressing the gap between the richest people and the poorest, and the impact this gap has on other pervasive inequalities, between men and women and between races, which make life for those at the bottom unbearable, is an imperative of our times. Too many children born today have their future held
hostage by the low income of their parents, their gender and their race.
This report contains many examples of success to give us inspiration. It is hoped that many people from government officials, business and civil society leaders, and bilateral and multilateral institutions will examine this report, reflect on its recommendations and take sustained actions that will tackle the inequality explosion.
The first objective is to contribute to the ongoing debate in addressing structural transformation analysis, explain the recent findings in Social Sector analysis and whether time has come for new approach.
The second objective is an attempt to present an overview and ideas about what we are planning to achieve in terms of addressing both Structural and transitory inequality within the context of Publics pending.
This presentation reviews the current state of the debate to extract common policy conclusions where possible, and layout the unresolved issues where extracting such conclusions is not possible. In doing so, the presentation raises more questions than it provides answers
Powerpoint presentation made at the Pan-African Conference on Inequalities and Structural Transformation .
Powerpoint presentation made at the Pan-African Conference on Inequalities and Structural Transformation.
A Summary Report of the Pan-African Conference on Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation that was held in Accra, Ghana 2014.