South Africa’s national policy framework for women’s empowerment and gender equality, which was drafted by the national Office on the Status of Women, was the focus of two hearings held in Durban last month. These gave participants from government and civil society the opportunity to discuss priority issues for national and provincial action plans, recommend structures and institutions for implementation and debate areas for cooperation between civil society and the Office on the Status of Women.
This report constitutes the South African report for a comparative research project on social dialogue and gender equality being coordinated by the Industrial and Employment Relations Departments (DIALOGUE) of the International Labour Office (ILO). The research project aims to deepen knowledge on how gender equality issues are promote through social dialogue at the national level. The research project is being undertaken as a follow-up of the Conclusions of the Committee on Gender Equality adopted at the 98th Sessions of the International Labour Conference in June 2009 (International Labour Conference, 2009).
To give effect to section 9 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996,in so far as the empowerment of women and gender equality is concerned; to establish a legislative framework for the empowerment of women; to align all aspects of laws and implementation of laws relating to women empowerment, and the appointment and representation of women in decision making positions and structures; and to provide for matters connected therewith.
Poverty is a broad concept with many faces that mirror dimensions of human welfare. It goes beyond inadequate food or income to access of individuals to basic nutrition, health, education and skills, improved livelihood, good housing conditions, clean water,social participation and political or religious freedom that are such welfare dimensions. Pronounced shortage or deprivation in each of these has a poverty face and their sum symbolizes the broad concept of human development to which a focus on deprivation is fundamental. Yet, the most commonly addressed poverty dimensions are income (or food) poverty and human poverty that are expressed via measured indicators.
Widening income inequality is the defining challenge of our time. In advanced economies, the gap between the rich and poor is at its highest level in decades. Inequality trends have been more mixed in emerging markets and developing countries (EMDCs), with some countries experiencing declining inequality, but pervasive inequities in access to education, health care, and finance remain. Not surprisingly then, the extent of inequality, its drivers, and what to do about it have become some of the most hotly debated issues by policymakers and researchers alike. Against this background, the objective of this paper is two-fold.
Legal system. The formal legal system in Sudan is primarily derived from British common law and Islamic law (Shari’a). Islamic law does not grant women in Sudan equal rights to men in matters of personal status including marriage, inheritance and divorce. The criminal act, governed by Shari’a, allows punishments such as flogging and amputation.For groups of other faiths than Islam (e.g. the Christian population) the communities’ own religious standards are applied to personal status matters.
Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, sits at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles. Sudan itself, recipient of the rich and diverse influences from both northern and sub-Saharan Africa, sits at the confluence of different races, religions and cultures. This report finds that unlike the Nile, whose two branches meet and together form one of the world’s mightiest rivers, Sudan remains racked by division and divergence, with inequality being their root cause.
Gender gaps favoring males—in education, health, personal autonomy, and more—are systematically larger in poor countries than in rich countries. This article explores the root causes of gender inequality in poor countries. Is the higher level of gender inequality explained by underdevelopment itself? Or do the countries that are poor today have certain characteristics and cultural beliefs that lead to the larger gender gaps? I begin by documenting some basic facts about how gender inequality correlates with the level of economic development. I then discuss several mechanisms through which the process of economic development theoretically could improve the relative outcomes of women and review recent evidence on these mechanisms.
Life in Sudan since 1956 has largely been defined by consecutive civil wars between Muslim Northern Sudan and mostly non-Muslim, non- Arab south Sudan. In 2011, South Sudan officially gained autonomy and independence. Northern Sudan is run under sharia (Islamic Law).Although officially considered to be Democratic Republic of Sudan, effectively the president Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR holds almost all the legislative, executive, and military decisions.Freedom of speech, association and assembly are all restricted in Sudan. Sudan is considered one of the world’s most corrupt states in the world
South Sudan is the world’s newest country with more than 60 ethnic groups and 80 local languages. Distinctions of ethnicity, language, religion, social class and rural or urban way of life cut across the society resulting in different gender relations even within the same overall ethnic group. Principle ethnic groups include the Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Murle and Shilluk. Most South Sudanese are Christian, there are also Muslims, and many South Sudanese practice traditional animist beliefs. Most South Sudanese (83%) live in rural areas although there are significant differences between states. Cattle culture is very important for most South Sudanese ethnic groups. The size of one’s herd is a key marker of wealth, and cattle-raiding was the main catalyst of inter-communal violence before the current political conflict erupted. In many parts of South Sudan, cattle are also used for the bride price required to marry. Northern South Sudan has oil-fields and some areas remain in contention with Sudan.