Income inequality especially remains high in South Africa. This article investigates the impact of macro-economic, institutional and structural factors on inequality across the nine provinces of South Africa. Using a panel data econometric technique, the determinants/ drivers of inequalities are estimated. The rate of openness (globalization) of an economy, the level of financial inclusion, the status of physical infrastructure, governance indicators, and socioeconomic and institutional factors are explored as explanatory variables. The article concludes with a presentation of the challenges and policy options required to address social and economic inequalities in South Africa.
This article highlights the nature, domains and responses to inequalities in Kenya in the context of the current socio-economic and political transformational processes shaping the country’s destiny. It describes the character and drivers of inequalities and analyses the political, policy, programmatic and constitutional measures that have been instituted to address them. It also highlights lessons learnt and challenges in addressing inequalities while sketching their possible resolution.
Ethiopia’s structural change has yielded impressive economic growth. With various forms of inequalities weakening the poverty reducing impact of this growth, there is increasing pressure for equitable and shared growth. This article investigates the forms of inequalities in Ethiopia and offers possible remedies. It shows that urban inequality remains higher than rural inequality, despite a slight narrowing because of favourable pricing for agricultural commodities and a large-scale social safety net programme. Key to addressing inequality is: sustaining the social protection intervention; providing decent jobs; enhancing opportunity; and fair representation.
This article analyzes forms, structure, drivers and Implications of inequalities in Ghana; examines its political economy and suggests remedial policy options and challenges. Regarding economic inequalities, it shows that despite a general reduction in the incidence of income poverty, its depth has increased: with a wider income distribution gap between the poorest and richest households; marked disparities between the well-endowed South and the impoverished North; and a gendered bias in the distribution of wealth assets. Overall, the non-diversified nature of Ghana’s recent rapid growth has not boosted employment or reduced inequalities.
This article looks at gendered asset inequalities in Africa. It shows that women have lower access to land; pursue largely informal and smaller entrepreneurial activities that pay less and have low value addition; have lower access to formal finance; and, have lower political capital. To close the gendered asset gap, there is need for: reform of land and financial laws; entrepreneurial training for women; affirmative action in key areas such as education and employment; special funds/programmes for women; and, use of quotas to enhance political participation by women.
Consolidating Misery? The political economy of inequalities Dates: 24th August 2016, Kampala, Uganda ‘People do not eat GDP’: Even as the economies of EAC member states have been recording considerable growth rates, this growth has been accompanied by a growth in inequality in virtually all countries. This is the one of the key observations of the […]
After decades of conflict between the northern and southern regions of Sudan – which engulfed the country in two phases of civil war from 1955 to 1972 and 1982 to 2005 and resulted in the loss of 2.5 million lives1 – a Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed in 2005 between the Sudanese government and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). One of the key clauses of the Peace Agreement was the recognition of South Sudan’s right to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Sudan or secede to form a new nation. A referendum was held in January 2011 and resulted in a 98.8% approval of the option to secede . The Republic of South Sudan (population 8.26 million3 ) was established on July 9th 2011.
Sudan is in a critical political, socio-economic and demographic transition, particularly in the post-cessation era, together with emerging national opportunities and challenges vis-à-vis the changing governance in the Arab region and the internationally down-turning economies. The newly two established post-cessation countries (Sudan and Southern Sudan) have serious disputes and a long trail to reach a peaceful coexistence. Although the Government has recently signed Peace Agreement in Doha with some of the Darfuri rebel movements, brutal fighting is perpetual in South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and some pockets in Darfur.
‘Inequalities in the context of Africa’s Structural Transformation’ Dates: 9th -10th August 2016, Nairobi, Kenya Society for International Development (SID) program of work on Inequalities focusses on: – deepening knowledge in select countries; building capacity of citizen groups to advance the establishment of a cohesive constituency in the region, including engaging in African and global […]
By Olivia K Lwabukuna, African Institute of South Africa (AISA), firstname.lastname@example.org A luta continua, as expressed in the form of ‘the struggle continues’ is a phrase encountered almost every day in post-apartheid South Africa. There is an unwritten and informal understanding that the democratic era ushered in by inclusive elections in 1994, has not yet yielded freedom […]