Income inequality especially remains high in South Africa. This article investigates the impact of macro-economic, institutional and structural factors on inequality across the nine provinces of South Africa. Using a panel data econometric technique, the determinants/ drivers of inequalities are estimated. The rate of openness (globalization) of an economy, the level of financial inclusion, the status of physical infrastructure, governance indicators, and socioeconomic and institutional factors are explored as explanatory variables. The article concludes with a presentation of the challenges and policy options required to address social and economic inequalities in South Africa.
This article highlights the nature, domains and responses to inequalities in Kenya in the context of the current socio-economic and political transformational processes shaping the country’s destiny. It describes the character and drivers of inequalities and analyses the political, policy, programmatic and constitutional measures that have been instituted to address them. It also highlights lessons learnt and challenges in addressing inequalities while sketching their possible resolution.
This conception of equity following growth has deep roots in South Africa. One of the earliest incarnations of this idea is from the Mount Fluer Scenarios, which warned of an “Icarus” scenario, where a well-meaning democratic government spends irresponsibly and in the process bankrupts the country. The warning was heeded and successive government plans starting with GEAR (the growth, employment and redistribution macro-economic strategy) have had a singular commitment to growing the economy with the intent of creating more jobs, growing and reprioritising government spending as well as improving skewed economic ownership. The idea runs through GEAR and even finds a place in the putative social compacts reached in the Growth and Development Summit.
When South Africa became democratic and political equality was adopted, little was done for economic equality. That mainly benefitted the already powerful whites. Economic liberalisation coupled with inequality and capitalist competition have engendered massive corruption
In conjunction with the passing of one of the greatest legends in our time, Nelson Mandela, South Africa gained some renewed attention. In general, the news stories regarding the country were negative and centred around widespread corruption associate with the government led by African National Congress. These reports are true, but they are far from complete. The corruption within the political elite stands in direct relation to the bribes and threats from the economic elite. It is absolutely crucial to complete the picture on corruption, not only to reach a greater truth, but also to mitigate racism and ideological delusions.
While government has made considerable strides since the dawn of democracy, much more still remains to be done to reduce inequality in the country, says Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe.
Speaking at the Mail & Guardian 20 Years of Economic Transformation Summit in Sandton, Motlanthe said while poverty had declined, inequality had not, as data shows that the richest 10% of households still get over half of the country’s national income.
The life of Nelson Mandela, and his struggle against injustice, oppression, and socio-economic inequalities, however, demonstrates why we should question this assumption. His journey from revolutionary to president of South Africa to active citizen provides lessons for all of us who value democracy and who yearn for a more active, engaged citizenry
Despite the emergence of a black middle class in South Africa, it is still among the world’s most unequal societies. Nelson Mandela’s legacy of tolerance formed the basis of South Africa’s democracy, but profound inequalities inherited from decades of racial segregation linger. The country’s first black President oversaw the transition of a deeply polarised society while reaching out to former oppressors, notably by having tea with the widow of the architect of apartheid’s white minority rule.
Nelson Mandela’s legacy of tolerance formed the basis of South Africa’s democracy, but profound inequalities inherited from decades of racial segregation linger. The country’s first black president oversaw the transition of a deeply polarised society while reaching out to former oppressors, notably by having tea with the widow of the architect of apartheid’s white minority rule.
The magnitude of the problem of inequality in our country, compounded by the painful reality of unemployment and poverty, will hobble any future development prospects unless we seriously debate the efficacy and appropriateness of our policy responses in post-apartheid South Africa
Quick facts of inequality in Kenya