My fellow Malawians,
I have the privilege of placing before you the Manifesto of the People’s Party, which highlights the policies and progammes we intend to implement after the forthcoming elections. I do so in all humility, knowing, as you do, how far we have recently come in rescuing our country from the mismanagement and abuses of the past. However, we still have a lot of work to do, in order to turn our country around and create the foundation for a clean and competent Government that meets the aspirations of the people of Malawi.
The Rural Structural Program on the Structural Dimensions of Liberalization in Agriculture and Rural Development is a joint initiative of the World Bank, the French Cooperation (French Development Agency, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Ministry of Foreign, Agricultural Research Centre for International Development—CIRAD) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development. It is managed by the World Bank.
Income per capita in Uganda has doubled in the last 20 years. This remarkable performance has been buoyed by significant aid flows and large external imbalances. Economic growth has been concentrated in non-tradable activities leading to growing external imbalances and a growing gap between rural and urban incomes. Future growth will depend on achieving sufficient export dynamism. In addition, growth faces a number of other challenges: low urbanization rate, rapid rural population growth and high dependency ratios. However, both the dependency ratio and fertility rates have begun to decline recently. Rural areas are also severely overcrowded with low-productivity subsistence agriculture as a pervasive form of production. Commercial agriculture has great possibilities to increase output, but as the sector improves its access to capital, inputs and technology it will shed jobs rather than create them.
The DFID-ESRC Growth Research Programme (DEGRP) produces a range of knowledge products which link the research of DEGRP to a number of research and policy debates on the following themes: agriculture; financial markets; and innovation and growth. The theme of structural transformation is the basis of much of the programme’s work; the concept involves productivity change through broad-based shifts in employment across sectors. This paper relates to the financial markets theme and draws together a number of essays that emerged from a public debate in Ghana on ‘What does it take to build a stable and efficient financial sector for sustaining growth and structural transformation in Africa?’
The lead speaker, Governor Wampah of the Central Bank of Ghana argued that by enabling greater diversification, risk sharing and investment in higher productivity activities, financial development can facilitate resource allocation and therefore, economic transformation. Efforts to develop the financial sector, according to him, should focus on enhancing depth, access, efficiency and stability. He argues that financial sector support to the real sector remains weak in many African countries, with corporate lending at the short end. There is also a lack of adequate competition, with an oligopolistic banking sector, leading to inefficient pricing of financial assets. He concluded that building a sound, stable and efficient financial sector is indispensable for sustained economic growth and structural transformation.
This report shows how current national policy responses have limited success in addressing inequality due to the growing global power of multinational actors and a corresponding shift in the governance of the food system away from government-driven national development strategies towards corporate profit- seeking interests, which oftentimes do not align with the goals of a more inclusive food system and secure access to nutritious food for all.
Over the past decade, large-scale land acquisition in Africa has become quite intense, especially in DRC, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia. While African countries are motivated by the need to transform the agricultural sector and diversify their economies, the urge to meet the needs of future food and biofuel security, among others,underpins foreign interest. This divergence of interest makes the realisation of the prospective benefits elusive in Africa. Maximsing the benefits of large-scale land acquisition requires bold actions against the following structural impediments: (i) weak land governance and a failure to recognise, protect and properly compensate local communities’ land rights; (ii) lack of country capacity to process and manage large-scale investments; (iii) foreign investors’ proposals that are inconsistent with local and national visions; (iv) resource conflict with negative distributional and gender effects; and (vii) inadequate capacity to assess the social, economic and environmental impact of the project on local communities. This paper suggests a 10-point agenda for maximising the benefits of the land grab in Africa.
This report examines how African countries can promote structural transformation without jeopardizing the objective of environmental sustainability, paying particular attention to how the relative decoupling of resource use and environmental impact from economic growth could contribute to the transformation process. Furthermore, the Report presents stylized facts on resource use and efficiency in Africa, which are crucial for understanding the nature and scale of the sustainable development challenges facing the region. Finally, the Report provides a strategic framework for sustainable structural transformation and identifies policies that could be adopted to promote it in Africa.
Among the Key Messages that emerged from the Global Thematic Consultation on Addressing Inequalities are the following:
Equality was identified as a fundamental value in the Millennium Declaration, adopted by the Member States of the United Nations at the turn of the century in 2000.
The obligation to address inequalities is born from the principles and standards of the internationalhuman rights treaties which have been widely adopted in the last several decades, as well as from human values shared across continents and cultures.
Translating equality and the other fundamental values of the Millennium Declaration more systematically and effectively into practice will be crucial to sustaining progress and improving the wellbeing of both today’s and all future generations.
Inequalities are a global challenge. They persist both within all countries and between them. Similar kinds of inequalities are faced in common by people across the world
Following on the outcome of the 2010 High-level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals, the United Nations Secretary-General established the UN System Task Team in September 2011 to support UN system-wide preparations for the post-2015 UN development agenda, in consultation with all stakeholders. The Task Team is led by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the United Nations Development Programme and brings together senior experts from over 50 UN entities and international organizations to provide system-wide support to the post-2015 consultation process, including analytical input, expertise and outreach. This report investigates the importance of addressing inequalities in light of the post 2015 development agenda.
This report revisits the theoretical concepts of inequalities including their measurements, analyzes their global trends, presents the policy makers’ perception of inequalities in 15 countries and identifies various policy options in combating this major development challenge of our time.
The report makes the basic point that in spite of the impressive progress humanity has made on many fronts over the decades, it still remains deeply divided. In that context, it is intended to help development actors, citizens, and policy makers contribute to global dialogues and initiate conversations in their own countries about the drivers and extent of inequalities, their impact, and the ways in which they can be curbed.This report was prepared by the Poverty Practice in the Bureau for Development Policy, UNDP.