Poverty in Sudan

Poverty is a broad concept with many faces that mirror dimensions of human welfare. It goes beyond inadequate food or income to access of individuals to basic nutrition, health, education and skills, improved livelihood, good housing conditions, clean water,social participation and political or religious freedom that are such welfare dimensions. Pronounced shortage or deprivation in each of these has a poverty face and their sum symbolizes the broad concept of human development to which a focus on deprivation is fundamental. Yet, the most commonly addressed poverty dimensions are income (or food) poverty and human poverty that are expressed via measured indicators.


Poverty Assessment Northern Sudan

This is Part 1 of a study, presented in three reports that detail the results of a poverty assessment and mapping project in North and Southern Sudan. The study’s objective was to produce a rural poverty analysis and poverty maps for North and Southern Sudan, and based on these findings, recommend agricultural interventions that can help reduce poverty. These findings provided an input to the IFAD Sudan Country Program 2007–2012, that takes into consideration the new constitutional changes in Sudan resulting from the peace agreements with South/East/West Sudan and to support peace, security and stability in Sudan.


Poverty and Inequality in Urban Sudan

Poverty remains an enormous challenge confronting policymakers in Africa. This chapter provides an overview of the current situation in Africa and the response to it as narratives have emerged in the development discourse. Factors leading to the rapid growth of the urban population in Africa and the way it impacts on cities’ abilities to meet the growing demand for employment, housing and urban services are highlighted. The second part of this chapter gives an introduction to the study area, namely Sudan, and presents some characteristics of the country. The last part outlines the objectives and methodologies of the study.


Cointegration Growth, Poverty and Inequality in Sudan

The relationship between inequality or income distribution and economic development has been an area ongoing study for over five decades. The distribution of income in a country is traditionally assumed to shift from relative equality to inequality and back to greater equality as the country develops. Intuitively, inequality will rise as some people move away from prevailing traditional activities, which yield a low marginal product, into more productive venture. At some point, the marginal product of all economic activities converges and income differences narrow. Based on this reasoning, the so-called Kuznets hypothesis (Kuznets, 1955) postulates a nonlinear relationship between a measure of income distribution and the level of economic development.


Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality

Widening income inequality is the defining challenge of our time. In advanced economies, the gap between the rich and poor is at its highest level in decades. Inequality trends have been more mixed in emerging markets and developing countries (EMDCs), with some countries experiencing declining inequality, but pervasive inequities in access to education, health care, and finance remain. Not surprisingly then, the extent of inequality, its drivers, and what to do about it have become some of the most hotly debated issues by policymakers and researchers alike. Against this background, the objective of this paper is two-fold.


Growth and Inequality in Sudan: An Econometrics Approach

The relationship between inequality or income distribution and economic development has been an area ongoing study for over five decades. The distribution of income in a country is traditionally assumed to shift from relative equality to inequality and back to greater equality as the country develops. Intuitively, inequality will rise as some people move away from prevailing traditional activities, which yield a low marginal product, into more productive venture. At some point, the marginal product of all economic activities converges and income differences narrow. Based on this reasoning, the so-called Kuznets hypothesis (Kuznets, 1955) postulates a nonlinear relationship between a measure of income distribution and the level of economic development.


Addressing Discrimination and Inequality in Sudan

Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, sits at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles. Sudan itself, recipient of the rich and diverse influences from both northern and sub-Saharan Africa, sits at the confluence of different races, religions and cultures. This report finds that unlike the Nile, whose two branches meet and together form one of the world’s mightiest rivers, Sudan remains racked by division and divergence, with inequality being their root cause.


The Roots of Gender Inequality in Developing Countries

Gender gaps favoring males—in education, health, personal autonomy, and more—are systematically larger in poor countries than in rich countries. This article explores the root causes of gender inequality in poor countries. Is the higher level of gender inequality explained by underdevelopment itself? Or do the countries that are poor today have certain characteristics and cultural beliefs that lead to the larger gender gaps? I begin by documenting some basic facts about how gender inequality correlates with the level of economic development. I then discuss several mechanisms through which the process of economic development theoretically could improve the relative outcomes of women and review recent evidence on these mechanisms.


Gender in Brief in South Sudan

South Sudan is the world’s newest country with more than 60 ethnic groups and 80 local languages. Distinctions of ethnicity, language, religion, social class and rural or urban way of life cut across the society resulting in different gender relations even within the same overall ethnic group. Principle ethnic groups include the Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Murle and Shilluk. Most South Sudanese are Christian, there are also Muslims, and many South Sudanese practice traditional animist beliefs. Most South Sudanese (83%) live in rural areas although there are significant differences between states. Cattle culture is very important for most South Sudanese ethnic groups. The size of one’s herd is a key marker of wealth, and cattle-raiding was the main catalyst of inter-communal violence before the current political conflict erupted. In many parts of South Sudan, cattle are also used for the bride price required to marry. Northern South Sudan has oil-fields and some areas remain in contention with Sudan.

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Centrality of Women Leadership and Gender Equality

Sudanese women like everyone else aspire towards achieving the commitments made at the Millennium Summit in 2000. What are the odds, for a country and a people in a complex conflict and post-conflict situation? The ethos of the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on women’s rights, participation of all citizens, gender equality and peace, profoundly captures the reality for women and their families in Sudan. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sudan demands creative and extra-ordinary measures centered on women’s leadership, reducing gender inequalities in all governance, service provision, and resource management while fostering strategic partnerships. Sudan is a country of multiple realities for its communities. Sudanese women and people are continuing to smile with one eye, while crying with another eye. They are living between the joys and commitment to sustain the peace ushered by the CPA and crying in search of peace in the Darfurs!


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