This paper analyses fiscal policies to determine the extent to which they intend to reduce socio-economic inequalities in the country. The early analysis reveals three types of policies. First, key decisions have been made because they had a direct positive effect on the welfare of the new and old elites, with very little positive impact on the population. Second, analysis of budget allocations shows that they overly benefit the new elite. Third, some populist policies with a semblance of egalitarianism have been announced but poorly implemented either due to resource constraints or because they were not properly thought through. On the whole, despite the fact that most members of the current leadership endured the most the consequences of inequalities before their ascension to power, their post-conflict fiscal policies do not signal that fighting inequality is a policy priority.
The paper examines the pattern of poverty, growth and inequality in Ethiopia in the recent decade. The result shows that growth, to a large extent depends on structural factors such as initial conditions, vagaries of nature, external shocks and peace and stability both in Ethiopia and in the region. Using a rich household panel data, the paper also shows that there is a strong correlation between growth and inequality. In such set up, the effect of implementing a pro-poor growth strategy, compared to allowing the status quo to prevail, can be quite dramatic. On the basis of realistic assumptions, the paper shows that from a baseline in 2000 of a thirty percent poverty share, over ten years at growth of four percent per capita, poverty would decline from forty-four to twenty-six percent for distribution neutral growth (i.e., no change in the aggregate income distribution)
Uganda has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving extreme income poverty by 2015, but there have been intermittent setbacks to the advances made. The incidence of poverty increased in the period 1999/00–2002/03, before falling significantly in the period 2002/03–2005/06. The findings of this Country Study suggest that poverty reduction is more responsive to changes in growth than to changes in distribution. More importantly, they indicate that any increase in inequality hurts the “ultra’ poor more than the poor. This paper proposes a direct cash transfer scheme to curb the further marginalisation of this group of Ugandans.
This paper is based on a field study; it investigates whether or not the government expenditure in the household sector results in income inequality decreasing, or income inequality increasing. Specifically it determines the income earning pattern between agricultural and non-agricultural economic activities, and assesses whether or not, the incomes earned in agricultural and non-agricultural activities, result in income inequality decreasing or income inequality increasing effects.
In this brief, Twaweza partner the International Budget Partnership (IBP) looks at fairness broadly, through the lives of four Kenyans. It looks at fairness around three concepts. i: Need ii. Capacity iii.Effort. IBP looks at the actual state of affairs in Kenya. The brief tries to understand what the principles mean in the real world of Kenya’s national and county governments. IBP collects and reports data on the situation in Kenya today, at the outset of devolution. The brief then looks at the distribution of inequalities and what it means for resource sharing. The brief also highlights the large and critical data gaps that exist and recommend further collection and publication of data. Finally, IBP considers the transition period to full devolution and what “holding harmless” could mean in the Kenyan context.
This paper examines the status of Burundi’s private enterprise and the environment in which it operates. This paper considers the priority requirements to jumpstart and maintain sustainable private enterprise activity that is high growth, enables Burundi to achieve high rates of GDP growth over the long term, provides economic benefit throughout the population, and is highly inclusive of Burundi’s population.
The issues discussed in this paper represent the author’s own synthesis of the discourse that has arisen subsequent to “Pulling Apart”. This synthesis is drawn from studies that have been conducted (or are being conducted) and public forums that have been held on the subject. It is neither comprehensive nor conclusive but it provides a flavour of the debate.
Inequalities work form the 1980
This paper reviews the links between social stratification and public policy since the creation of Kenya as a political entity by the British. It is a literature review of theoretical literature and historical policy document. It is argued that the establishment of a ‘predatory’ capitalist system by administrative and legal decisions first of the colonizing power and followed by the post-independence government has been crucial to the emergence of economic stratification characterized by gross inequality and widespread poverty.