This paper examines the existence and patterns of systematic within country inequalities in effective land rights in Rwanda. The results of empirical estimations drawing on data on the land tenure arrangements of over 5,000 Rwandan households indeed suggest systematic within-country inequalities in land rights, with households headed by women or young individuals, households that have been displaced due to conflict, and households in the Imidugudu village settlements reporting significantly weaker rights than their respective comparison groups. The observed inequalities are not only the result of variation in tenure arrangements, but also exist when comparing households cultivating plots under similar land tenure regimes. Finding within-country inequalities in effective property rights highlights the need to – unlike much of the quantitative literature in the field – carefully evaluate how property rights apply to different segments of a country’s population.
This paper examines the structure of income inequality among farm households in Rwanda. Specifically, it focuses on inequalities rooted in the distribution of and holdings and on the attendant polarization of relatively large landholders who tend to hire agricultural wage labor, on the one hand, and near-landless householders who provide this wage labor, on the other. Of particular concern is the role of emergent non-farm employment opportunities in this process and the implications for achieving less divergent income inequalities in the future
This paper aims to deepen our understanding of the determinants of income inequality in Uganda. Over the past 10 years, Uganda experienced gradual and sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. The benefits of growth, however, are not being distributed equally. The major contributions of this paper include: (i) Use of income data (ii) Decomposition of consumption expenditure into subgroups (iii) Regression-based inequality decomposition to identify and quantify the relative co
The main objective of this paper was to analyze the dynamic relationships of inequality, poverty and growth by using five round panel data set collected through Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (ERHS). Section I describes the levels of poverty, inequality and growth at regional level and Peasant Associations levels. Section II analyses and discusses the inequality growth-poverty interrelationships observed over the past survey periods. Finally, Section III summarizes key findings and concludes by indicating their policy implications. Contributed Paper prepared for presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Beijing, Chinal, August 16-22, 2009
This paper seeks to shed light on the determinants of this large increase in inequality. We exploit the availability of two comparable household surveys to decompose changes in inequality based on a set of counterfactual scenarios. Our microsimulation approach builds on the methodology discussed in Bourguignon, Ferreira and Lustig (1998) and applied in Bourguignon, Ferreira and Leite (2007). Our main finding is that the increase in inequality was driven mostly by changes in returns to household characteristics, and especially by changes in the returns to education. Skills premia increased significantly while average educational levels also increased.
The paper studies the effect of international remittances on poverty and inequality in Ethiopia using urban household survey collected in 2004. Counterfactual consumption is estimated in the hypothetical case of no migration and no remittance using information on those households who don’t receive remittance in a selection corrected estimation framework. Inequality and poverty values in the hypothetical and actual cases are then compared. Even though only 14% of the households received remittance, poverty decreased significantly because the remittance receiving households mainly come from the bottom consumption distribution and the amount they received is big.
This paper studies trends and dynamics in poverty and inequality in rural Kenya at the aggregate and household levels over the decade 1997 to 2007 . Households are classified into five groups by their income and poverty paths over the period, providing substantial insight into the heterogeneity of the rural population and the drivers of these dynamic income paths.
A study on economic transformation in Rwanda. The aim of the study is to assess how Rwanda has fared with respect to economic transformation over the past 30 years and suggest recommendations for accelerating its progress.
Readings on Inequality in Kenya provides a discussion of first instance on a few and in so doing signals us to the other existing knowledge gaps that also need filling. The sectors and the depth of treatment of the issues are by no means exhaustive. However, it poses questions and raises issues that should attract further inquiry and scholarship.
This Briefing looks at the achievements of the first Rwanda Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). It examines the recent evolutions of growth, poverty and inequality to assess the extent to which the PRSP has been truly pro-poor. It further explores the lessons to be learned for new poverty-reducing policies, such as the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS – PRSP2).