Drawing on data from population censuses and recent household surveys for India and Ghana, this paper demonstrates the importance of internal migration in comparison to international migration, showing that internal migrants outnumber international migrants by an order of magnitude in both countries.
The study undertakes a spatial and inter-temporal decomposition of the S-Gini inequality index using the Shapley Value-based approach, and both money-metric and child health indicators collected by the government’s statistics office in 1996 and 2001. Changes in income inequalities are driven largely by changes in between-zone inequalities; for child health, the within-zone component remains more important. Results point to the wisdom of considering the redistribution of health facilities and services within-zones rather than across if the intention is to cost-effectively reduce overall health inequalities. In the monetary space, an optimal-mix of within- and between-zone distributive measures is important in addressing inequality.
In addition to reviewing the economic origins of the crisis the report examines the options available to manage the social and economic challenges in the short run and over term. Importantly, the report also presents policy options for the short run and frames the structural changes needed in terms of empowering the private sector and accelerating industrial development. The Report also suggests options on how to restore inclusive growth from how to attain new skills for the workforce to reforming the public expenditure.
Poverty reduction has received increased focus in development debate in the past two decades. Progress on poverty reduction has become a major measure of success of development policy. In the 1970s and 1980s, the pre-occupation was with growth, the need to grow the economies and incomes. Thus, growth was seen as a prerequisite for improved welfare. It has however been noted that little progress can be made in poverty reduction when inequality is high and rising . This contradicts earlier theories of development which suggest that inequality is good for growth and, therefore, for poverty reduction through growth. This has, therefore, called attention to the role of inequality in the growth and poverty reduction process.
There have been income and welfare redistribution in Burkina and Senegal produced by fiscal reforms undertaken within the context of the West African Economic and Monetary Union where a unique VAT tax and common tariffs harmonization were adopted. The measure of redistributive effects and the costs of the horizontal iniquity generated by the new taxations shows that, although the reform is deemed positive for both countries, Burkina has more benefited from it. This is mainly explained by the relatively important place of fiscal evasion, by selfconsumption and the informal sector, and by the fact that most of the goods consumed by the poor households are not liable of taxation
The CODESRIA Monograph Series is published to stimulate debate, comments, and further research on the subjects covered. The series serves as a forum for works based on the findings of original research, which however are too long for academic journals but not long enough to be published as books, and which deserve to be accessible to the research community in Africa and elsewhere.
African Agends Issue Vol. 14. No. 4
Using a 2006 household survey in Mali, this paper compares poverty rates and inequality levels with counterfactual ones in the absence of migration and remittances. With proper hypotheses on migrants and a selection model, the findings are able to impute a counterfactual income for households currently receiving remittances. Studies show that remittances reduce poverty rates by 5% to 11% and the Gini coefficient by about 5%. Households in the bottom quintiles are more dependent on remittances, which are less substitutable by additional workforce.
This publication explores the link between inequality and corruption in Nigeria and Mali. The author argues that despite democratization weak institutions contribute to the corrupt state. Furthermore, surveys reveal that fairness in the legal system is the central factor shaping people’s views in both countries.
This paper examines the impacts of agroclimatic shock on income inequality and poverty,using household-farm data from three agroecological zones of Burkina Faso together with income-source decompositions of the Gini coefftcient and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty index before and after a severe drought. Gur findings reveal that, because the poor lack acces to off-farm income, off-farm income increases inequality and fails to shield poor households against agroclimatic risks. The direction of the empirical relationship between changes in inequality and poverty after the drought depends critically on environmental variables and on apparent constraints on income diversification at different points in the income distribution.