This thesis deals with poverty and inequality in Mozambique and with the link of education to well being through the labour market. Earlier studies that analyzed well-being in Mozambique drew counter intuitive conclusions about the spatial distribution of poverty and inequality. They focused excessively on money-metric indicators of well-being and adjusted the poverty line so as to make it reflect taste and price differentials across regions. This thesis suggests the use of a wealth index based on asset holding and derived by employing Multiple Correspondence Analysis to support the money metric results.
This Country Study examines poverty, inequality and economic growth in Mozambique since the acceleration of the market economy reforms after the end of the armed conflict in 1992 and the shift from one party state to multi-party democracy. It first reviews recent economic development in terms of GDP growth and its changing sectoral composition and follows with an assessment of the impact on poverty and inequality on the other dimensions of human development via education and health .
This study attempts to assess trends in inequities in selected indicators of health status and health service utilization in Malawi using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1992, 2000 and 2004
The purpose of this booklet is to examine inequality in Namibia, including its causes, structural and otherwise, and the historical foundations thereof. Central to this booklet is the notion that inequality is a function of an economic system that creates economic injustice and is based on the needs of predatory capital. This system has become truly global over the years, producing high levels of poverty and inequality in various parts of the world, including Asia, Africa and Latin America. Inequality in Namibia has deep roots and today’s levels of inequality can be traced back from the period of colonial dispossession to the market-driven economic policies pursued after independence.
This paper provides an overview of poverty, inequality and growth in post-Independence
Namibia. The main findings of the paper are:
Inequality remained at more or less the same level between 1993/94 and 2003/04, with a very high Gini coefficient of around 0.60 for both periods. The finding that the level of inequality hardly changed contradicts previous reports that Namibia’s Gini coefficient decreased from 0.70 to 0.60 between 1993/94 and 2003/04. Income growth (as measured indirectly by consumption growth) over this ten-year period was higher among the poorest and richest households than among the middle classes. In terms of economic sectors, the most significant reduction in poverty was among subsistence farmers.
This report presents an analysis of poverty and inequality in Namibia based on the expenditure data from the 2003/2004 Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics Using the new CBN-based poverty lines, the study presents a detailed poverty profile of Namibia. This profile shows that poverty status in the country is closely correlated with a series of social, demographic, geographic and economic features of households. Multivariate analysis confirms that poverty levels in Namibia are higher for instance among households that are female-headed, based in rural areas and have one or more children. These results underscore the potential for poverty reduction through targeting of policies and interventions
This study, the ﬁrst independent empirical investigation, reports that in South Africa, Avon helps some impoverished women earn a better income and inspires empowerment among them. The authors introduce a new theory, pragmatist feminism, to integrate past work on women’s entrepreneurship and argue that feminist scholars should reexamine the histories of the market democracies for replicable innovations that may have empowered women.
This chapter looks at the structural causes of inequality in Malawi as well as its economic and social aspects. It further contextualizes inequality from the precolonial era to the present, capturing the key role of the state in tackling related issues and advancing the rights and welfare of the people.