Meilleures Options De Politiques Économiques Pour Combattre Les Inégalités En Et Promouvoir Le Développement En Afrique : Vision De La Csi-Afrique

Il est bien vrai que ces dernières années, la croissance des économies africaines a été remarquable avec le développement d’infrastructures dans certaines régions, le développement socio-économique reste mitigé. La croissance économique enregistrée n’est pas accompagnée de mesures adéquates pour soutenir sa durabilité. En effet, l’emploi est demeure la principale source de revenus pour les populations, constitue un problème pour les populations africaines surtout pour la jeunesse. La plupart des emplois qui existent, sont précaires et donc sources de vulnérabilité pour les populations : Environ 60 à 80% de la population active africaine se retrouvant dans l’économie informelle.

Thematic Area(s):

Land Grab in Africa: A Review of Emerging Issues and Implications for Policy Options

Over the past decade, large-scale land acquisition in Africa has become quite intense, especially in DRC, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia. While African countries are motivated by the need to transform the agricultural sector and diversify their economies, the urge to meet the needs of future food and biofuel security, among others,underpins foreign interest. This divergence of interest makes the realisation of the prospective benefits elusive in Africa. Maximsing the benefits of large-scale land acquisition requires bold actions against the following structural impediments: (i) weak land governance and a failure to recognise, protect and properly compensate local communities’ land rights; (ii) lack of country capacity to process and manage large-scale investments; (iii) foreign investors’ proposals that are inconsistent with local and national visions; (iv) resource conflict with negative distributional and gender effects; and (vii) inadequate capacity to assess the social, economic and environmental impact of the project on local communities. This paper suggests a 10-point agenda for maximising the benefits of the land grab in Africa.

Inequalities Country Report – Ghana

The main objective of this country case study  is to provide information on the various forms of inequalities in Ghana, their structure, drivers and implications, as well as, to examine a range of policy options and lessons. Following this introduction, the rest of the sections is organised as follows. Section Two presents an analysis of key domains of inequalities in Ghana, focusing on the nature, dynamics and main drivers. Section Three looks at the political economy of inequalities in Ghana, emphasizing the role of colonial, political and traditional power, as well as challenges. A brief overview of data availability and challenges in accessing information is presented in Section Four. Section Five assesses the recent policy interventions and responses in addressing inequalities, with special emphasis on how the agenda for structural economic and social transformation might address inequalities. Summary of lessons learnt and policy challenges concludes the study in Section Six.The study is primarily based on secondary data sources including Ghana’s population censuses (2000 and 2010) and a host of the nationally representative sample surveys conducted in Ghana .

Thematic Area(s): ,

Africa Rising . Inequalities and the essential role of fair taxation.

This report investigates the issue of income inequality in eight sub-Saharan African countries (Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe). While there is growing public recognition that inequality is the issue for our time – both globally and in sub-Saharan Africa – there is little definitive analysis of income inequality trends on the continent. This report seeks to contribute in this area, looking at whether income inequality is, in fact, rising and in what context this is occurring. In particular, this report seeks to locate an analysis of tax systems in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of these economic inequalities, given the primary importance of national tax systems in redistributing wealth.

The report looks at national taxation systems and international taxation issues – and, critically, the relationship between them. In this way it reveals how the enabling environment for tax dodging impacts on national tax systems in sub-Saharan Africa. It also dissects the trends in revenue generation, tax equity and tax reforms across the eight countries. It has a special focus on the experiences of two countries – Kenya and South Africa – which have two of the stronger tax systems in sub-Saharan Africa but which also have extensive shortcomings in the area of tax equity.

The evidence gathered in this report shows that increasing income inequality should be of huge concern to governments in at least six out of the eight countries – Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Zambia, Kenya and Malawi. In Ghana and Nigeria, income inequality is rising strongly. In Nigeria, between 1986 and 2010, there has been a 75% increase in the concentration of income in the country. In Ghana there has been a 50% increase in the concentration of income over an 18-year period. In Zambia income inequality is now at its highest levels since data was collected. South Africa has one of the highest levels of inequality in the world and one which keeps increasing. The sharp rise in the incomes of the richest 5% is driving the increase at the top end. Yet there is no evidence of progress in tackling this inequality, or even much preoccupation with it, in South Africa’s new National Development Plan.

Economic development in Africa: Structural Transformation and Sustainable Development in Africa

This report examines how African countries can promote structural transformation without jeopardizing the objective of environmental sustainability, paying particular attention to how the relative decoupling of resource use and environmental impact from economic growth could contribute to the transformation process. Furthermore, the Report presents stylized facts on resource use and efficiency in Africa, which are crucial for understanding the nature and scale of the sustainable development challenges facing the region. Finally, the Report provides a strategic framework for sustainable structural transformation and identifies policies that could be adopted to promote it in Africa.

Horizontal inequalities as a cause of conflict: a review of CRISE findings

Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity(CRISE)

The aim of this paper is to review the main findings and conclusions of CRISE research. It suggests policies, based on the research findings that could help to reduce the frequency of violent conflict and prevent its recurrence. The paper is structured as follows: section 1 defines the concept of horizontal (HI) inequalities in more detail and elaborates on their connection with conflict. Section 2 reviews the 10 major findings of CRISE research. Given that the evidence implies that HIs are an important cause of conflict, policies to reduce such inequalities need to be identified and introduced where they are acute. Section 3 identifies relevant policies and discusses some advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. Section 4 briefly looks at data and measurement. Section 5 draws some conclusions and highlights further research needs arising from the work.

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