Income inequality especially remains high in South Africa. This article investigates the impact of macro-economic, institutional and structural factors on inequality across the nine provinces of South Africa. Using a panel data econometric technique, the determinants/ drivers of inequalities are estimated. The rate of openness (globalization) of an economy, the level of financial inclusion, the status of physical infrastructure, governance indicators, and socioeconomic and institutional factors are explored as explanatory variables. The article concludes with a presentation of the challenges and policy options required to address social and economic inequalities in South Africa.
This background note is intended to inform the World Bank’s Interim Strategy Note for Somalia to ensure gender considerations are incorporated into identified operational and analytical priorities. The aim of this analysis is to provide a brief delineation of gender disparities in Somalia through a review of existing literature and interviews with relevant actors and organizations.Findings of this analysis and proposed recommendations reflect consideration for the development priorities outlined within the World Bank’s Operational Policy on Gender and Development (OP/BP 4.2),the Africa Regional Strategy, the WDR 2011 and WDR 2012, previous Bank initiatives within Somalia including the 2006 UN-World Bank Joint Needs Assessment, the resulting Reconstruction and Development Program and the 2007 ISN for Somalia.
The role of education has progressively been recognized in the international development lexicon not only because of its pivotal role in improving the well-being of households and individuals but also the positive externalities that it generates for society as a whole. There is overwhelming and convincing empirical evidence that consistently indicates the positive impact of education on improving the well-being and reducing poverty and vulnerability of the poor households in the rural and urban settings. Interestingly, the role of education has also been recognised in the discourse on the causation of civil wars. Some empirical evidence shows that civil wars are concentrated in countries with little education and importantly a country with higher percentage of its youth in schools reduces considerably its risk of conflict (Collier, 2000). This finding has undoubtedly underpinned the important externalities generated by education and particularly in Africa where civil wars have become pronounced and endemic.
By Olivia K Lwabukuna, African Institute of South Africa (AISA), firstname.lastname@example.org A luta continua, as expressed in the form of ‘the struggle continues’ is a phrase encountered almost every day in post-apartheid South Africa. There is an unwritten and informal understanding that the democratic era ushered in by inclusive elections in 1994, has not yet yielded freedom […]
The World Economic Forum’s chief economist has linked the Scottish independence debate to growing concern about inequality around the globe. The forum, whose annual meeting in Davos takes place next week, warned that the chronic gap between the incomes of the richest and poorest citizens is seen as the risk that is most likely to cause serious damage globally in the coming decade
Quick facts of inequality in Kenya
By international standards, extreme poverty or destitution is relatively low in the countries of North Africa. According to the World Bank, the number of those living below 2 USD a day was 13.9 percent in 2008, which would make the region of Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the fourth poorest region in the world after sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia.