Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation: The case of Senegal

This article analyzes the key domains of inequalities in Senegal. It underscores the high level of gender disparity in the distribution of unemployment that disproportionately affects women. A relatively efficient education system is nevertheless undermined by large geographically defined access differentials. In terms of infrastructure, the capital Dakar enjoys better access to transportation, schools and health facilities in comparison with rural and other urban zones. Agriculture and informal trade are crucial for reducing youth unemployment


Structural Transformation and Inequality: Evidence from Nigeria

This article highlights that the persistent high levels of poverty and inequality are being mainly propelled by the structure of the Nigerian economy and the inability of annual public expenditure, despite its large size, to guarantee improved access to functional facilities and social services. It also illustrates how the emerging structural transformation, led by the services sector, needs to be consolidated and properly managed in order to promote sustainable development, including the eradication of poverty and the reduction of inequality.

 


Transforming Malawi Together

My fellow Malawians,

I have the privilege of placing before you the Manifesto of the People’s Party, which highlights the policies and progammes we intend to implement after the forthcoming elections. I do so in all humility, knowing, as you do, how far we have recently come in rescuing our country from the mismanagement and abuses of the past. However, we still have a lot of work to do, in order to turn our country around and create the foundation for a clean and competent Government that meets the aspirations of the people of Malawi.


Spotlight on Sustainable Development 2016

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted unanimously at the United Nations by world Heads of States and Governments in September 2015 is highly ambitious. If taken seriously it has the potential to change the prevailing development paradigm by re-emphasizing the multidimensional and interrelated nature of sustainable development and its universal applicability.


Structural Transformation and Natural Resources in Africa

The theme of last year’s edition of the African Economic Outlook, that of promoting youth employment, showed that in spite of steady growth Africa’s ability to offer economic and social opportunities to its younger generation has not matched its demographic dynamism. African economies today are facing nothing less than the formidable challenge of creating more and better jobs, not just by sustaining the pace of growth, but by making it more inclusive.
Emerging economies, such as Brazil, China, India among others, have been more successful than most African countries in that endeavour, achieving impressive reductions in poverty for more than two decades. How are they different from Africa? One answer is that they have undergone a more rapid structural transformation; that is, the process by which new, more productive activities arise and resources move from traditional activities to these newer ones. A higher proportion of labour thus moved from low-productivity to highproductivity sectors.


Accelerating Africa’s Structural Transformation

In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa at present, the majority of the population is engaged in agriculture, with economies in the very early stages of structural transformation—the process whereby a predominantly agrarian economy is transformed into a diversified and productive economy dominated by manufacturing and services. These countries are characterized by low levels of farm productivity, limited growth of non-farm employment, and high rates of population growth, usually close to 3 percent or more, because sharp declines in mortality have not been followed by significant declines in birth rates


A Study on Transforming Agriculture

The Tanzania Development Vision 2025 (TDV) envisages transforming the economy from a predominantly agricultural one with low productivity to a diversified and semi-industrial economy with a modern rural sector and high productivity in agricultural production which generates reasonably high incomes and ensures food security and food self-sufficiency. Therefore to facilitate realization of the objectives and targets under the vision, a study was commissioned to identify means and ways of transforming agriculture from its backward position to a modern state characterized by high production capacity coupled with greater output, good quality products and high return to farmers and to the country as a whole. The report gives a diagnostic analysis of the status of agriculture in Tanzania, including its performance over the last thirty years. It examines the sector’s contribution to the economy, factors behind its poor performance and provides major strategic options for transforming current agriculture status


Lessons of the Global Structural Transformation Experience for the East African

Since the food price rises starting 2007 and the financial crisis that followed in 2008, the development community has been wrestling with the dual questions of threats to food security and the growing inequality accompanying economic growth. Almost all of the poverty and hunger is now concentrated in the low and lower-middle income countries of Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, most of it in rural areas. In this paper we examine the performance of a selected number of countries in Asia and Africa by analyzing agriculture’s historic role in structural transformation. A paper drawing on the experience of 109 countries over a 30 year period with a focus on China, India, Indonesia and Brazil was prepared as an input into India’s 12th Five Year Plan in 2011 (Lele et al 2011). By extending that analysis to the East African countries, we demonstrate the extent to which the late developers of the East African Community face odds which are greater than those of densely populated Asian countries in achieving structural transformation. We further demonstrate the urgency of focusing attention on agricultural productivity growth as the critical ingredient for achieving food security, poverty reduction and overall economic development.


Tanzanian Agriculture under the Structural Adjustment Programmes with Special Reference to Two Villages in the Kilimanjaro Region

Tanzanian government launched the three-year Economic Recovery Programme (ERP) in the 1986/87 financial year (July-June). Then its second phase, the three-year Economic and Social Action Programme (ESAP) has been started in 1989/90. These programmes were intended to bring a transformation in Tanzanian economy as well as society. The recent noteworthy issue is “Zanzibar Declaration”. The Party National Executive Committee of Chama cha Mapinduzi, which is the single political party in Tanzania, held in middle February, 1991 in Zanzibar decided to allow Party members to acquire shares in private companies, drawing more than one salary and renting houses (The Sunday News 17/2/91), which had been regarded as deeds of capitalists or feudalists in the clause 8-(7) of chapter 2 of Katiba ya Chama cha Mapinduzi (Chama cha Mapinduzi Constitution). In spite of the propaganda of the continuation of the “socialism and self-reliance” policy by the senior staffs of the government and the Party such as “Ujamaa is not dying” (by the Party Vice-Chairman, Hon. Rashidi Kawawa, The Daily News 2/3/91), “Economic reforms within socialist policy” (by the Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Hon. Ahmed Hassan Diria, The Daily News 9/3/91) and so on, at least some transformation has been going on steadily.

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Strategic Plan for the Transformation of Agriculture in Rwanda–Phase II (PSTA II)

This Strategic Plan for Agricultural Transformation in Rwanda –Phase II(PSTA II) document finalised in December 2008 has been developed in response to the need for an updated strategy for agriculture. The PSTA II covers the four year period 2009-2012, terminating at the same time as the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy(EDPRS) at the end of 2012.
The strategy document is structured as follows: this executive summary and three Parts. Part I covering the context, challenges of the strategic plan with chapters on (a) the role and context of the strategic plan, (b) principles of this strategy and the strategic axes for Rwandan agriculture, (c) Rwandan agriculture today, (d) lessons learned and agriculture objectives revisited, and (e) the methodology used for developing the PSTA. Part II follows on with details on the strategy and its programmes with chapters on each of the four programmes with details of the sub-programmes and activities under each major programme. Finally, Part III covers the strategy implementation and financing modalities. One annexe isappendedon the detailed budget.

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