This study analyses Burundi’s economic performance over the period 19602000 and finds that it has been catastrophic. The usual economic factors explaining growth are endogenous to political decisions, suggesting that it is politics not economics that explains the dismal performance. This picture particularly limits the relevance of textbook models that rely on the assumption of a competitive resource allocation rule. When cronies rather than qualified managers are running the economy, when priority is given to investment projects in function of their location rather than the objective needs of the economy, the economic model loses its explanatory power. Economic performance has been shaped by the occurrence of violent conflicts caused by factions fighting for the control of the state and its rents. The capture of rents by a small group have become the overarching objective of the successive governments that have ruled the country since shortly after its independence. Therefore, the economic system will not change unless the political system is modernised from a dictatorial regime playing a zero-sum game to a more democratic and accountable regime. Therefore, it would be naïve to propose that economic reforms will boost the country’s economy if they are not preceded or at least accompanied by political reforms. One central message of this study is that Burundi’s poor economic performance is the result of specific identifiable factors evolving around governance. There is nothing fundamentally wrong with Burundi: Development failure may be reversed if the issues identified in the study are properly addressed.
Tanzania has made strides the health system reform over the last 10 years.During this time, the Adult Morbility and Mortality Project(AMMP) has been monitoring cause-specific mortality rates. What can these data tell us about our progress, and about our health service priorities for the next 10 years? What conditions should concern us most as we seek to improve the health of Tanzanians of all ages without neglecting those in the poorest areas?
In 1993, the first democratically elected president of Burundi, who belonged to the majority Hutu ethnic group, was assassinated along with his close collaborators. The killing triggered the massacre of innocent Tutsi by members of the president’s party. Acts of revenge followed, leading to the creation of militias within both groups, and the ensuing fighting Balkanised entire neighbourhoods. The retaliations escalated into a full-scale civil war and an associated rebellion in Hutu refugee camps in Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda. Civil war resulted in the loss of an estimated 300,000 lives and a massive displacement of people both internally and as refugees. It also destroyed the country’s precarious social fabric, leading to extreme suspicion between people of different ethnicity.
The report offers an in-depth, quantitative study of four themes that are important to UNICEF’s programs on peacebuilding in the education sector. These are enrollment, drop-out, youth and violence as well as inequality. Each theme is discussed below.
The quantitative approach is paralled with qualitative analysis from field visits, interviews and focus group discussions with pupils, teachers and school directors.
The political situation in Burundi is typical of a post-conflict country that is striving to reconcile the need to consolidate the newly restored peace and responding to the basic needs and demands of the population, while laying the required foundation for sustainable development.
Burundi is one of the world’s poorest countries, with a very low Human Development Index ranking (185th out of 187 countries). As a result of difficulties in access to employment and production factors, women are more affected by poverty than men.
Support from the international community is subject to conditions due to concerns about governance in public administration, including corruption, embezzlement, lack of transparency in recruitment processes, excessive politicization of public administration, etc.
1.1 The 2012-2016 Burundi Country Strategy Paper (CSP) evaluates the development perspectives and challenges facing the country and the role the Bank can play, in close collaboration with the Government of Burundi (GoB) and development partners, in supporting the country to meet its development objectives; as articulated in the Burundi Vision 2025. This CSP aims to support Burundi exit the post-conflict situation and strengthen the outcomes achieved in the previous CSP which focused on governance and job creation through infrastructure development and targeted interventions in agriculture.
This paper examines whether their has been any inter-temporal shift in Tanzania’s comparative advantage and what that says about the structural transformation of the economy. This assessment is done based on Tanzania’s revealed comparative advantage between 2001/2002 and 2011
The theme of last year’s edition of the African Economic Outlook, that of promoting youth employment, showed that in spite of steady growth Africa’s ability to offer economic and social opportunities to its younger generation has not matched its demographic dynamism. African economies today are facing nothing less than the formidable challenge of creating more and better jobs, not just by sustaining the pace of growth, but by making it more inclusive.
Emerging economies, such as Brazil, China, India among others, have been more successful than most African countries in that endeavour, achieving impressive reductions in poverty for more than two decades. How are they different from Africa? One answer is that they have undergone a more rapid structural transformation; that is, the process by which new, more productive activities arise and resources move from traditional activities to these newer ones. A higher proportion of labour thus moved from low-productivity to highproductivity sectors.
In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa at present, the majority of the population is engaged in agriculture, with economies in the very early stages of structural transformation—the process whereby a predominantly agrarian economy is transformed into a diversified and productive economy dominated by manufacturing and services. These countries are characterized by low levels of farm productivity, limited growth of non-farm employment, and high rates of population growth, usually close to 3 percent or more, because sharp declines in mortality have not been followed by significant declines in birth rates
The Tanzania Development Vision 2025 (TDV) envisages transforming the economy from a predominantly agricultural one with low productivity to a diversified and semi-industrial economy with a modern rural sector and high productivity in agricultural production which generates reasonably high incomes and ensures food security and food self-sufficiency. Therefore to facilitate realization of the objectives and targets under the vision, a study was commissioned to identify means and ways of transforming agriculture from its backward position to a modern state characterized by high production capacity coupled with greater output, good quality products and high return to farmers and to the country as a whole. The report gives a diagnostic analysis of the status of agriculture in Tanzania, including its performance over the last thirty years. It examines the sector’s contribution to the economy, factors behind its poor performance and provides major strategic options for transforming current agriculture status