Poverty remains an enormous challenge confronting policymakers in Africa. This chapter provides an overview of the current situation in Africa and the response to it as narratives have emerged in the development discourse. Factors leading to the rapid growth of the urban population in Africa and the way it impacts on cities’ abilities to meet the growing demand for employment, housing and urban services are highlighted. The second part of this chapter gives an introduction to the study area, namely Sudan, and presents some characteristics of the country. The last part outlines the objectives and methodologies of the study.