economic growth and strong resilience to external shocks. Yet these achievements have been overshadowed by the sluggish response of poverty to the growing economy. Despite stable GDP growth at an annualized rate of approximately 7 percent for over a decade, the poverty rate has remained stagnant at around 33 percent until 2007 and started declining, albeit at a slow pace, attaining 28.2 percent in 2012. This apparent disconnect between growth and poverty reduction has raised concerns among researchers and policy makers, and spurred increased attention toward improving the participation of the poor in the growth process and enhancing more inclusive growth. The poor appear to have shared little in the gains from Tanzania’s growth and their prospects of escaping poverty seem to be hindered by high inequality. The current National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty in Tanzania has given high priority to accelerating poverty reduction and promoting growth with equity. This strategy is in line with the twin goals of ending extreme pove
Soon after independence in 1961, Tanzania declares war against three development archenemies which are Ignorance, Poverty and Disease. Since then these three trio-archenemies have been mainstreamed in the strategies, policies, plans and programme to free the nation from them. The outcome started to be seen in early 1980s, whereby over 90% of Tanzanians were able to read and write and over 90% of school age children were enrolled in schools. On the other side, there was significantly expansion of health facilities and staff pairing with better improved water system. The idea was to ensure that people are in a good heath and have enough skills and knowledge that can be applied to increase productivity. This was to prepare the people for smooth economic transformation and fuelling the effort of removing the trio- development archenemies.
With 27,834 km² of surface area and a population of 10.5 million, Burundi’s population density is seven times that of Tanzania and second only to Rwanda’s on the African mainland (World Bank, 2014). Its population grows at an annual rate of 2.4%, and more than 90% of the population lives primarily on agriculture. These factors make land a vital and scarce resource in Burundi, leading to frequent conflicts and particular complications in questions of inheritance (Kazoviyo & Gahungu, 2011). The situation is even more problematic for women and girls, who traditionally inherit nothing from their fathers. In Burundi, women’s right to inherit land faces the triple barriers of demography, tradition, and the law.
This paper proposes a micro-level decomposition approach of consumption growth and poverty reduction with a focus on the role of sectoral growth and structural transformation. Taking the case of Uganda with available household-level panel data over the 2005-2010 period, we examine the within-sectoral growth and sectoral changes that were associated with a 8 percent poin reduction in the poverty headcount ratio and an annual average consumption growth rate of 3 percent. Since those surveys contain a tracking instrument of both households and individuals, it is therefore possible to examine occupational, spatial, institutional, and demographic mobility of the original households and their members over time. Those different dynamics can then be related to micro-level welfare dynamics through panel-based descriptive and regression-based decompositions, aside the more standard cross-sectional approaches such as the Ravallion-Huppi one.
The Great Lakes region of Africa is faced by numerous problems ranging from military conflict and political instability to poverty, economic uncertainty, social upheavals and tensions, disease and gender inequality. These problems exist within a context of global advances in science and technology. Although some of these challenges are a consequence of globalization and unequal trade relations, colonial subjugation and ethnicity, others may be blamed on culture. While recognizing that, indeed, there are numerous cultural practices that require immediate eradication it is vital to appreciate that there are still many others that are useful, either potentially or in reality.
But what do we mean by culture? Culture may be viewed as the total sum of a people’s way of life. It includes norms and values of a society: their religion, politics, economics, technology, food habits, medicine, rules of marriage, the performing arts, law and so on. For Geertz (1973:44-5) culture is “a set of control mechanisms – plans, recipes, rules, instruments (what computer engineers call “programs”) – for governing of behaviour.” According to him, this view of culture “begins with the assumption that human thought is basically both social and public – that its natural habitat is the house yard, the market place, and the town square.” Geertz’s interpretation of culture has the requisite implications of power and control mechanisms embedded in culture, which allow for the exploration of gender inequality and inequity.
This study aimed to estimate socio-demographic inequalities in HIV testing and prevalence among adults aged 50+ years, living in Ifakara town, Tanzania, in 2013
Africa experienced robust economic growth over the past two decades, growing at an average annual rate of 4.5 percent. Did this growth lead to substantial improvements in well-being? Did household income rise and poverty fall? Did other dimensions of well-being, including education, health, physical security, and self-determination, improve? Did all countries and population groups benefit equally, or did progress come at the expense of rising inequality? The answers have been unclear, in part because poverty data on Africa are weak.
This report reviews the evidence and provides a unique analysis of the underlying data. It is the first of a two-part volume on poverty in Africa (the second report will explore how to accelerate poverty reduction in the region
This report shows how current national policy responses have limited success in addressing inequality due to the growing global power of multinational actors and a corresponding shift in the governance of the food system away from government-driven national development strategies towards corporate profit- seeking interests, which oftentimes do not align with the goals of a more inclusive food system and secure access to nutritious food for all.
This edition of Caritas Europa’s Crisis Monitoring Report shows evidence suggesting that six years after the crisis began in 2008 the economic crisis is still leaving its marks on residents and EU economies. In addition to enormous debt levels with very little economic growth, there are huge numbers of unemployed people and millions of people living in poverty or at risk of poverty. Caritas member organisations in Cyprus, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania and Spain provide concrete examples and testimonies of the lasting impact of the crisis on individuals in these countries.