The Government of Ethiopia has expressed its determination to achieve structural transformation, as reflected in its Growth and Transformation Plan, which was adopted in 2010 and has been the key medium-term development plan for the period 2010/11-2014/15.1 Although rapid growth is necessary to reduce poverty, growth will be unsustainable in the long run unless it is both socially inclusive and environmentally sound. Accordingly, Ethiopia has embarked on a national strategy of building a climate-resilient green economy.2 Transitioning to an inclusive green economy is receiving growing attention as a pathway that can lead to sustainable development. It entails a low-carbon, climate-resilient, resource efficient, environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive growth path, thus promoting the achievement of internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals and the sustainable development goals, which are expected to be adopted as part of the post-2015 development agenda in September 2015.
The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development examines the intrinsic relationship between work and human development. Work, which is a broader concept than jobs or employment, can be a means of contributing to the public good, reducing inequality, securing livelihoods and empowering individuals. Work allows people to participate in the society and provides them a sense of dignity and worth. In addition, work that involves caring for others or voluntarism builds social cohesion and strengthens bonds within families and communities.
Lesotho faces a number of challenges in achieving equality between men and women. The subordination of women is deeply ingrained in Basotho culture with the minor status for women only being removed within the last decade. Whilst legislation has increased rights for women on paper, there is still a long way to go before this makes a difference to women on the ground.
Today, Basotho women face severe disadvantage which is mostly brought about by the patriarchal culture which keeps women oppressed and makes them more vulnerable to abuse, poverty and disease. Rates of violence against women are high with around 86% of women reporting incidents of abuse.1 There are large numbers of women in poverty2 in Lesotho with female headed households more likely to be in poverty than those headed by men.3 Furthermore, many women are prevented from making decisions about things which affect them (such as their bodies) which makes them more susceptible to diseases such as HIV/AIDS and increases the risk of maternal mortality.
Inequality has been rising throughout the world.In the majority of developed countries; In most developing countries, notably India and China among countries. Although widely agreed as a problem, few policies to address it.There are two sorts of inequality: Vertical inequality – among households/individuals.Horizontal Inequality among groups.Ethnic groups (many African countries)
Religious (and ethnic) Western Europe; N.Ireland; West Africa; India. Racial: Malaysia; Fiji; US; Brazil
Women work significantly longer hours than men when account is taken of domestic work and collecting wood, water and fodder – men 24.5 hours and women 44.4 hours.Women also do most of the work on the farm which is labour intensive. The head of household is responsible for the sale of agricultural produce and what happens to income. The return on commercial crops is generally not sufficient to feed the family and invest in inputs for growing the crop the next season. Women have little time or energy to do additional income generating work and when they do it is generally poorly paid agricultural day labouring.
Structural changes contribute to economic development by enhancing productivity and creating more and better jobs, which is demonstrated by a wide and growing body of literature. Structural changes into higher value added sectors and upgrading of technologies in existing sectors by applying more complex production technologies, increase demand for higher levels of education and skills. Education and skills are intrinsically linked to these processes and constitute a major driver of economic transformation. An adequately educated labour force is essential for a strong economic growth. It is also valued for its role in helping people to become more productive, create capacity to innovate and adopt new technologies. Education and skills training themselves, however, do not create (decent) jobs, and an increase in education attainment levels may also result in unemployment, over-qualification and the underutilization of skills (Sparreboom and Abdullaev, 2013).
In 1995: 70%, 1999/2000: 59%, 2005/6: 57%, 2010/11: 45% ,Inequality peaked at 0.52 in 2005/6, then down to 0.49, “hat trick” of rapid growth, sharp poverty reduction and reduced inequality.
In February 2015, the DFID-ESRC Growth Research Programme (DEGRP) and REPOA convened a high level workshop to explore the challenges and potential solutions for economic transformation in Tanzania. The event brought together nearly 200 participants, comprising local and international economic and research experts; national policy-makers, including members of parliament; civil society; and media representatives, to discuss the role of agriculture, the financial sector and manufacturing in the country. Professor Benno Ndulu, Governor of the Central Bank of Tanzania gave the keynote speech.
Over the past three decades, the world has witnessed an enormous economic transformation fostered by significant economic, political, technology and transformation sharing changes. These changes have transformed the way the world’s institutions and people function and have therefore changed the economic and societal landscape for everyone. These changes have been accompanied by increasing trends of inequality. However, rapid growth and increased equity do not occur in vacuum, but result from an institutional environment that aligns everybody’s incentive in the direction of productivity and efficiency and that expands social entitlements to all workers without discriminating on the basis of labor status.
The “Peace Beyond Borders” Programme was initiated by Oxfam and is being implemented by a consortium of ten national and international organisations in the Great Lakes Region (Burundi, Rwanda, DRC). The Programme seeks to advance Conflict Transformation in the Great Lakes Region through the adoption of a ‘Regional Roadmap to Peace’ by a ‘Virtual Regional Parliament’ constituted by ‘Peace Brokers’ selected from local affected communities in the region. Parallel to the ‘Roadmap to Peace’, a Women Agenda for Peace and a Youth Agenda for Peace will be adopted. At the foundation of the Programme and these various regional instruments is research conducted among their intended beneficiaries: citizens in Burundi, DRC (North Kivu and South Kivu), and Rwanda. This Policy Brief presents a concise overview of the principal findings from the first phase of research conducted by Impunity Watch, as well as preliminary results from a separate research study into the major preoccupations of a sample of women and youth in the region. The latter results are preliminary since the data is currently in the process of being coded by Impunity Watch, as of January 2015. Consequently, the results are necessarily raw, but provide initial insight into the views of a sample of women and youth in the region. All of the research was designed and conducted with the explicit intention of bringing forward the views of the local affected populations in the region.