This report is a national assessment of the preparation and participation of women and girls in the knowledge society in Ethiopia. Informed by the belief that women should have equal access to technologies and participate fully in the knowledge society, it employs the Women in Global Science and Technology’s (WISAT) Gender Equality and the Knowledge Society framework (GEKS), a tool that assesses the readiness and status of girls and women in science, technology, and innovation globally. GEKS incorporates indicators that relate not only to the ability of women and men to participate in STI, but also the conditions for socioeconomic and political development that determine the ability of both women and men to contribute to the knowledge society.
Economic inequality has worsened significantly in Malawi in recent years. In 2004, the richest 10 percent of Malawians consumed 22 times more than the poorest 10 percent. By 2011 this had risen to see the richest 10 percent spending 34 times more than the poorest. Yet even this shocking statistic is likely to be a significant underestimate1. Anyone who has seen the many large mansions springing up on the edges of Lilongwe and Blantyre, and the plethora of new shopping malls being opened, knows that conspicuous consumption amongst the richest is dramatically growing. Malawi’s Gini coefficient, the key measure of inequality, also shows the extent to which robust economic growth is benefiting the rich whilst leaving the poor behind. In seven years of impressive growth, the Gini has leapt up from 0.39, on a par with Cameroon, to 0.45, on a par with the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Five years ago Ethiopia embarked on a bold journey of growth and transformation. The preparation and launch of the First Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP I) marked a key point of departure on the road of Ethiopia’s growth and transformation. Its vision, bold targets and the design of relevant polices and strategies to realize those goals galvanized and inspired the nation. Past development outcomes combined with the motivating and mobilizing power of GTP I became a great force for accelerating its implementation.
As a result, committed Government and Ethiopians across the country contributed and enhanced the implementation of defining programs and projects of GTPI. These efforts helped GTP I performance to take Ethiopia to a new height.
Malawi continues to face rising numbers of people infected by HIV with approximately one million adults and children currently infected. With Global Fund resources, Malawi aims to provide anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to at least 50,000 people over a 5-year period (depending on the cost of drugs and infrastructure capacity). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 10-15% of all HIV positive people will progress to AIDS at any given point in time. Based on this about 100,000 to 150,000 Malawians would need ART at any one time, hence there is an enormous shortfall. The challenge will be to decide who should have access to ART given the limited resources.
The flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in agriculture to Least Developed Countries (LDCs) has increased substantially since 2007. The global food, energy and financial crisis motivated developed countries rich in capital but limited in land resources to invest in poor countries with abundant natural resources (GRAIN 2008). Especially, the 2007/08 price boom in food commodities has motivated food import dependent countries to look for option to produce food commodities in countries where there are abundant land and water resources as their food security strategy (IFPRI 2009; World Bank 2011). Zoomers (2010), in her article of “globalization and the foreignisation of space”, extended the drivers of global land grabs into seven different processes. There are mixed views whether such investment activities are beneficial to target countries. Some argue that FDI in agriculture will create opportunity for “sustained” and “broad-based development” through enhancing technology transfer, increasing domestic availability of food supply and creating employment opportunities provided that inward investment is well-managed (World Bank 2011). Others (Mersha 2009; Grojnowski 2010; Fitzgerald 2010; Rice 2009; Mihretie 2010; McLure 2009) criticized it as “land grabbing”, “bio-colonialism”, “agro-colonialism” etc. Except some media reports, little has been done following a standard and scientific procedure with adequate empirical data to verify whether such large scale land acquisitions in Ethiopia are opportunities or challenges to sustainable and equitable development to the country. This research is aimed at identifying the impact of large scale farm land acquisition by trans-national investors on equitable and sustainable development in Ethiopia.
Increasing Poverty and Inequality: Malawi is one of the world’s poorest economies ranking 171 out of 187 in the Human Development Index (HDI). Malawi has made some progress on its Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) but is still unlikely to meet most targets. Poverty levels in Malawi remain at 51% and have not registered a significant reduction since 2004. Rural poverty has increased to 56.6% as has income inequality. There has been some progress on under five and infant mortality, HIV treatment and access to water and sanitation. Maternal mortality remains high with 10 women dying daily. One in five children of school going age is still out of school. Gender inequalities persist in every sector. Rapid population growth combined with the effects of climate change are causing severe stress on agriculture and undermining food security.
The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development examines the intrinsic relationship between work and human development. Work, which is a broader concept than jobs or employment, can be a means of contributing to the public good, reducing inequality, securing livelihoods and empowering individuals. Work allows people to participate in the society and provides them a sense of dignity and worth. In addition, work that involves caring for others or voluntarism builds social cohesion and strengthens bonds within families and communities.
These are all essential aspects of human development. But a positive link between work and human development is not automatic. The link can be broken in cases of exploitative and hazardous conditions, where labour rights are not guaranteed or protected, where social protection measures are not in place, and when unequal opportunities and work related discrimination increase and perpetuate socioeconomic inequality.
We, Ministers in Charge of Social Development, Labour and Employment of African Union Member States, meeting at the First Meeting of the Specialized Technical Committee on Social Development, Labour and Employment, together with Social Partners, under the theme, “Social Protection and Inclusive Development” at the AUC Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 20 to 24 April 2015,
The year 2014/15 marks the end of the ﬁrst phase of the growth and transformation plan (GTP-I) of Ethiopia and a prelude to the second phase of the plan (GTP-II). Ethiopia achieved important milestones in laying foundations for structural transformation . Nevertheless, there are important hurdles that the nation need to address to ensure an irreversible change in the structure of the economy for the better of its people. The purpose of this presentation is to reﬂect on the prospects of structural transformation in Ethiopia, the challenges ahead and emphasize possible areas of intervention.
The deadline for the MDGs is fast approaching and there has been intensified discussions in the past two years on a successor framework to the Post -2015 Development Agenda. The UN Open Working Group recently proposed a set Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that comprises seventeen 17 goals accompanied by targets that will further be elaborated through indicators focused on measurable outcomes. Africa has also come up with the African Common Position (CAP) on the post- 2015 development agenda which has six priority areas – structural transformation and inclusive growth; science, technology and innovation, people-centered development; environmental sustainability and natural disaster management; peace and security, and financing and partnerships (The Africa Report, 2014). This paper looks at inequality and inclusive growth in the context of structural transformation in Ethiopia- a priority area both in the CAP and in the context of post-2015 development agenda.