Gender in Somalia

UNDP Somalia strives to address gender equality and women’s empowerment in an effective and coherent manner. The Country Programme Document for 2011 to 2015 provides a framework within which to implement the mandates of gender mainstreaming in the country programme overall and responds directly to the acute challenges faced by Somali women today. UNDP is tackling some of the most recurrent aspects of discrimination through strategic attention to the most vulnerable men, women, girls and boys, with the ultimate goal of contributing to the achievement of human development and gender equality.

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Creating Conditions for a Gender-just Peace

This report seeks to emphasize the status of Somali women throughout the various transformations of Somali society and culture. Through examining those factors that affect Somali statehood and state building, such as culture and tradition, as well as the impact of historical events from colonial to military rule and ongoing civil war, it is evident that Somali women have not been passive observers to these processes but are, in many cases, active participants and pioneers of change and revolution.
Within this context, the report documents, through numerous interviews with Somali women, the ways in which the civil war and subsequent peace processes have created opportunities for increased participation of Somali women in public spaces. Crucially, the report also assesses the significant challenges that peace processes have posed, and continue to pose, for Somali women, including a lack of visibility in official peace and governance processes, the threat of sexual violence, and limited educational and economic opportunities.


Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality

Widening income inequality is the defining challenge of our time. In advanced economies, the gap between the rich and poor is at its highest level in decades. Inequality trends have been more mixed in emerging markets and developing countries (EMDCs), with some countries experiencing declining inequality, but pervasive inequities in access to education, health care, and finance remain. Not surprisingly then, the extent of inequality, its drivers, and what to do about it have become some of the most hotly debated issues by policymakers and researchers alike. Against this background, the objective of this paper is two-fold.


Gender Inequality and Women’s Rights in the Great Lakes

The Great Lakes region of Africa is faced by numerous problems ranging from military conflict and political instability to poverty, economic uncertainty, social upheavals and tensions, disease and gender inequality. These problems exist within a context of global advances in science and technology. Although some of these challenges are a consequence of globalization and unequal trade relations, colonial subjugation and ethnicity, others may be blamed on culture.


Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality: A Global Perspective

Widening income inequality is the defining challenge of our time. In advanced economies, the gap between the rich and poor is at its highest level in decades. Inequality trends have been more mixed in emerging markets and developing countries (EMDCs), with some countries experiencing declining inequality, but pervasive inequities in access to education, health care, and finance remain. Not surprisingly then, the extent of inequality, its drivers, and what to do about it have become some of the most hotly debated issues by policymakers and researchers alike. Against this background, the objective of this paper is two-fold.


Gender Equality

Ethiopia’s constitution and national policies are consistent with international legal instruments on gender equality, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Beijing Platform of Action, the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Ethiopian constitution (Box 3.1) guarantees the rights of women as equal to those of men in all spheres including equality in marriage, the right to equal employment, and rights to maternity leave with pay, the right to acquire, administer, control, use and transfer property, with emphasis on land and inheritance issues and the right to access family planning and education. Ethiopia is therefore making several efforts to strengthen national structures for achieving gender parity.


The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Beyond its core focus on macroeconomic and financial policies, the Fund is increasingly concerned with how income inequality affects growth and macroeconomic stability. Over the last decade, many of the countries that have entered a path of fast economic development and reduced poverty simultaneously experienced a rising gap between the rich and poor. As a result, in many of them, including those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), income inequality has increased. The relationship between growth and inequality is a complex one, given that the causality may go in both directions, and the effect of inequality on growth may change with a country’s stage of development. A growing body of research indicates the adverse implications of inequality for development and macro stability, arguing that it may lead to political and economic instability, weaken support for economic reforms, and undermine progress in education and health (Persson and Tabellini, 1994; Easterly, 2007; Berg, Ostry and Zettelmeyer, 2012; Ostry et al., 2014). Recent empirical work conducted at the Fund confirms this relationship between rising income inequality and its impact on economic growth (Dabla Norris et al., 2015)


Inclusive Green Growth in Ethiopia

The present report documents good practices and lessons learned on inclusive green growth in four key sectors of the Ethiopian economy: agriculture and land use management; forestry; energy; and transport. These sectors were selected on the basis of their contribution to promoting inclusive green growth and informing the transition to the green economy in Ethiopia. The case studies drawn from the sectors were selected based on their actual or potential contribution to the economic, social and environmental well-being of the country. Other important criteria for the selection were the studies’ implementation design, sustainability and
replicability.


Inclusive Green Economy Policies and Structural Transformation in Ethiopia

The Government of Ethiopia has expressed its determination to achieve structural transformation, as reflected in its Growth and Transformation Plan, which was adopted in 2010 and has been the key medium-term development plan for the period 2010/11-2014/15.1 Although rapid growth is necessary to reduce poverty, growth will be unsustainable in the long run unless it is both socially inclusive and environmentally sound. Accordingly, Ethiopia has embarked on a national strategy of building a climate-resilient green economy.2 Transitioning to an inclusive green economy is receiving growing attention as a pathway that can lead to sustainable development. It entails a low-carbon, climate-resilient, resource efficient, environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive growth path, thus promoting the achievement of internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals and the sustainable development goals, which are expected to be adopted as part of the post-2015 development agenda in September 2015.

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The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Beyond its core focus on macroeconomic and financial policies, the Fund is increasingly concerned with how income inequality affects growth and macroeconomic stability. Over the last decade, many of the countries that have entered a path of fast economic development and reduced poverty simultaneously experienced a rising gap between the rich and poor. As a result, in many of them, including those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), income inequality has increased. The relationship between growth and inequality is a complex one, given that the causality may go in both directions, and the effect of inequality on growth may change with a country’s stage of development. A growing body of research indicates the adverse implications of inequality for development and macro stability, arguing that it may lead to political and economic instability, weaken support for economic reforms, and undermine progress in education and health (Persson and Tabellini, 1994; Easterly, 2007; Berg, Ostry and Zettelmeyer, 2012; Ostry et al., 2014). Recent empirical work conducted at the Fund confirms this relationship between rising income inequality and its impact on economic growth (Dabla Norris et al., 2015).


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