The authors hypothesize a relationship between household assets inequality, conflict and poor health outcomes in Sudan. Sudan’s 31 million people represent diverse cultures, both Arabic and African.Sudan is a poor country, with a Human Development index of 0.41, ranking 171st of 187 countries. The country has suffered political instability since independence from Britain in 1956,with two revolutions and a 40-year civil war. Armed conflict in western Sudan and states bordering South Sudan is ongoing (Central Intelligence Agency 2013).
South Africa is one of the most unequal countries in the world. It is often said to be the most unequal, but that is incorrect. A number of countries, for example Namibia and Seychelles, have higher gini coefficients (the measure most often used to measure income distribution) than does South Africa. There are a number of other countries that are clearly very unequal – some major oil producers for example – but, for obvious reasons, choose not to measure the extent of their inequality.
Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, sits at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles. Sudan itself, recipient of the rich and diverse influences from both northern and sub-Saharan Africa, sits at the confluence of different races, religions and cultures. This report finds that unlike the Nile, whose two branches meet and together form one of the world’s mightiest rivers, Sudan remains racked by division and divergence, with inequality being their root cause.
Gender gaps favoring males—in education, health, personal autonomy, and more—are systematically larger in poor countries than in rich countries. This article explores the root causes of gender inequality in poor countries. Is the higher level of gender inequality explained by underdevelopment itself? Or do the countries that are poor today have certain characteristics and cultural beliefs that lead to the larger gender gaps? I begin by documenting some basic facts about how gender inequality correlates with the level of economic development. I then discuss several mechanisms through which the process of economic development theoretically could improve the relative outcomes of women and review recent evidence on these mechanisms.
Universally, early marriage is commonly classified as union formations by children under the age of 18 (“UNICEF”, 2005).It is a practice which affects mostly girls in developing countries. One of the latest reports by UNFPA (2012) states that; in 2010, there were over 67 million women between ages 20 and 24 who had been married before 18 in developing countries (excluding China). Moreover, in the same report it is projected that, if the present situation continues, more than 14 million girls under the age of 18 will become married each year within the next decade. While Asia and Africa are the two continents where the practice is most common, it is also possible to witness early marriage victims in almost every developing country around the world. Ethiopia is one of the 41 countries where early marriage had been experienced by more than 30% of women who were between 20 and 24 years old in 2011 (“UNFPA”, 2012, pp.23).
In the wake of the global financial crisis, many developed and developing country
governments are prioritizing stability at the individual financial institutions and systemic level by strengthening financial regulation. Even though the latter is important to make financial systems more robust, its contribution to inclusive growth might be insufficient, especially in poor countries.
The focus of this proposed research is low-income countries (LICs), in SubSaharan Africa (SSA). Ethiopia has been selected alongside Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana for the case study based on their differences (financial structures, and approaches to financial regulation) and potential to generalize findings to other LICs. Ethiopia is a small open, rapidly growing economy with shallow financial sector and low coverage of financial services. In addition, there is a lack of more sophisticated financing mechanisms such as leasing, equity funds, etc. On top of
that, the financial sector is highly regulated and closed from foreign competition.Financial soundness indicators revealed that the financial sector in the country is profitable and stable.
Over the 15 years since the country’s last National Human Development Report (NHDR) was published Ethiopia has undergone significant economic and social changes and has recorded some of the highest growth rates in the world-over 10 per cent in some years. However, Ethiopia’s Human Development Index (HDI) and its relative ranking have not moved appreciably during the past decade. Even though Ethiopia is one of the 10 countries globally that has attained the largest absolute gains in its HDI over the last several years, it still ranks 173rd out of 186 countries in the latest UNDP Human Development Report.
This research project addresses three intersecting issues where it has been acknowledged that there is too little empirical knowledge: the transmission mechanisms linking global trade in agricultural products with poverty reduction; the functioning and significance of rural labour markets in low-income countries; and the labour market dimensions of Fairtrade certification. The Fairtrade, Employment and Poverty Reduction in Ethiopia and Uganda (FTEPR) research team, based at SOAS, University of London, set out to develop and apply innovative, careful research methods in order to gather analytically useful, policy relevant evidence on these issues.
Food prices maybe regressive in the sense that the poor compared to the non-poor pay more for food (e.g. Attanasio and Frayne, 2006; Beatty, 2010; Gibson and Kim, 2013).
Reasons for this poverty penalty (see e.g. Muller (2002) and Mendoza (2011)); Serving the poor may be more costly, the poor face greater liquidity constraints(They buy food in small quantities, hence not enjoy quantity/bulk discounts which leads to higher unit prices), liquidity constraints and a lack of proper post harvest storage facilities or a combination of both( the poor to buy food at suboptimal periods), Higher search costs (poor paying more for food)
Gender equality is emphasized by its inclusion as one of the eight MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) and is first and foremost a human right.1 The UN refers to gender equality as the equal rights, responsibility and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys. Women’s and men’s rights, responsibility and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female.2 Gender equality is an issue worldwide but where women are specially targeted is in underdeveloped countries where human development and gender inequality are usually correlated.3 Women are in many parts of the world discriminated due to religious and cultural factors and in Africa a woman’s ability to make an informed decision without any form of discrimination is in many cases not a given right.4 Nearly all of today’s African countries have at some point been a colony under French, British, Portuguese, Boer, German or Leopold of Belgian rule5 and most countries are flawed democracies or hybrid regimes.6 There has been some significant democratic improvement in many African nations and young democracies capture the opportunity to enhance gender equality. In January 2006 Liberia became the first African country to ever have a female president when Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was sworn in as president. In April 2012 Joyce Banda became the first female president in Malawi. Banda explains good political and economic governance guarantees fairness, equality and freedom. She agrees gender equality use the full potential of both men and women and enhances the capacity for women to participate in matters affecting them.7