This background note is intended to inform the World Bank’s Interim Strategy Note for Somalia to ensure gender considerations are incorporated into identified operational and analytical priorities. The aim of this analysis is to provide a brief delineation of gender disparities in Somalia through a review of existing literature and interviews with relevant actors and organizations.Findings of this analysis and proposed recommendations reflect consideration for the development priorities outlined within the World Bank’s Operational Policy on Gender and Development (OP/BP 4.2),the Africa Regional Strategy, the WDR 2011 and WDR 2012, previous Bank initiatives within Somalia including the 2006 UN-World Bank Joint Needs Assessment, the resulting Reconstruction and Development Program and the 2007 ISN for Somalia.
After decades of conflict between the northern and southern regions of Sudan – which engulfed the country in two phases of civil war from 1955 to 1972 and 1982 to 2005 and resulted in the loss of 2.5 million lives1 – a Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed in 2005 between the Sudanese government and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). One of the key clauses of the Peace Agreement was the recognition of South Sudan’s right to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Sudan or secede to form a new nation. A referendum was held in January 2011 and resulted in a 98.8% approval of the option to secede . The Republic of South Sudan (population 8.26 million3 ) was established on July 9th 2011.
To give effect to section 9 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996,in so far as the empowerment of women and gender equality is concerned; to establish a legislative framework for the empowerment of women; to align all aspects of laws and implementation of laws relating to women empowerment, and the appointment and representation of women in decision making positions and structures; and to provide for matters connected therewith.
Prior to the secession of the Southern Sudan from the Sudan in July 2011, there were many challenges that trap the population of many areas of the country by poverty. The education, health, water and sanitation services are extremely poor as a result of the long civil conflict (1955–1972 and 1982–2005) and unfavorable climatic changes and natural disasters. Consequently, adult illiteracy rate reached 75% of total population with the primary school enrollment being only 20% (GOS-UNCT, 2004). Only 27% of the population had access to safe drinking water and only 16% had access to sanitation facilities (Guvele et al., 2009).
The objective of this report is to provide foundational research for a planned policy paper for the Oxfam Rights in Crisis (RiC) campaign ,African Conflicts – Safety, Livelihoods, and Gender Justice‟. The report is based on a review of relevant literature, field research conducted at Oxfam project sites in two states of South Sudan, Lakes (Oxfam Great Britain) and Warrap (Intermón Oxfam), and interviews with key informants. Its focus is on pastoralist and agropastoralist communities in remote border areas, as they are among the groups most affected by conflict and the most marginalised, and their voices are often not heard. The dominant ethnic group in the research areas are the Dinka, which is why this report focuses on Dinka culture.
Life in Sudan since 1956 has largely been defined by consecutive civil wars between Muslim Northern Sudan and mostly non-Muslim, non- Arab south Sudan. In 2011, South Sudan officially gained autonomy and independence. Northern Sudan is run under sharia (Islamic Law).Although officially considered to be Democratic Republic of Sudan, effectively the president Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR holds almost all the legislative, executive, and military decisions.Freedom of speech, association and assembly are all restricted in Sudan. Sudan is considered one of the world’s most corrupt states in the world
South Sudan is the world’s newest country with more than 60 ethnic groups and 80 local languages. Distinctions of ethnicity, language, religion, social class and rural or urban way of life cut across the society resulting in different gender relations even within the same overall ethnic group. Principle ethnic groups include the Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Murle and Shilluk. Most South Sudanese are Christian, there are also Muslims, and many South Sudanese practice traditional animist beliefs. Most South Sudanese (83%) live in rural areas although there are significant differences between states. Cattle culture is very important for most South Sudanese ethnic groups. The size of one’s herd is a key marker of wealth, and cattle-raiding was the main catalyst of inter-communal violence before the current political conflict erupted. In many parts of South Sudan, cattle are also used for the bride price required to marry. Northern South Sudan has oil-fields and some areas remain in contention with Sudan.
Poverty is a multidimensional and dynamic concept. It has multiple causes that exhibit economic, social and political characteristics and hence poverty reduction policies require multidimensional approaches and strategies. Poverty reduction policies have become one of the priority policy targets of governments in developing countries and the pillar of external financial assistance from donor countries. The challenges to reduce poverty are formidable in developing countries where poverty is deep and widespread, income is extremely low, growth rate is weak and income distribution is uneven. These features of the production and distribution of output create systemic tendency for the poverty elasticity of income to be weak, making the growth induced poverty reduction less effective (Besley and Burguess, 2003; Bourguignon, 2003). In economies where the initial pattern of income distribution is highly unequal and vertical mobility is restricted by economic, social and institutional hurdles, economic growth –if it happens at all tends to have limited impact on reducing poverty. Even economies with remarkable growth rate could not achieve sustainable poverty reduction if the growth process does not generate productive job opportunities, mobility, and accumulation of assets and capital for an increasing share of the population. Growth without development becomes a possibility. The pattern, characteristics and sector composition and sustainability of growth rate are therefore as important for poverty reduction as the pace of growth performance.
Ethiopia—one of the fastest-growing economies in Africa—double digit GDP growth rate for more than a decade; Initially led by agriculture, growth has become more broad-based, with manufacturing, services generating an increase share of output; Accelerated industrialization being laid by increased educational attainment, improved health outcomes, and quantum increases in infrastructure capacity; Industrial parks are starting to spring up across the country, echoing China’s development experience 20 years ago.
Ethiopian society, economy and environment are so intimately interlinked that systematic attention is essential if clashes are to be resolved and synergies realized. For example, the majority of poor people are principally dependent on agriculture but, in turn, society is dependent on farmers managing land well to sustain water supplies, biodiversity and other environmental services. Such relationships are dynamic and increasingly intense: climate change, rising population, resource scarcities and price volatilities put them all under pressure. An integrated perspective that works operationally is needed – one that makes economic, social and environmental sense and that inspires stakeholders. The holistic approach that the Ethiopian Government has recently developed aims to tackle the problems inherent in growth paths that produce environmental problems, and to realize potentials from investing in Ethiopia’s natural assets. For example, the country’s agricultural products and potential for green hydroelectric power are unique attributes that could drive development in ways that are environmentally sound and provide new jobs and satisfying livelihoods.