Gender Inequalities in Rural Employment in Malawi

The Constitution of Malawi was adopted in 1994 and consists of 23 Chapters and 215 sections. It seeks to enshrine the principle of equality not only in general terms but it is also quite specific in mandating gender equality (section 13), promoting women’s rights (section 24), and prohibiting any kind of discrimination based on gender (section 20), even though it does not legally define discrimination.1 The Constitution also prohibits the National Assembly or any subordinate legislative authority from creating any law or taking any action that would abolish or infringe on people’s rights and freedoms as enshrined in the Constitution.


Globalization, Structural Change and Productivity growth

One of the earliest and most central insights of the literature on economic development is that development entails structural change. The countries that manage to pull themselves out of poverty and get richer are those that are able to diversify away from agriculture and other traditional products. As labor and other resources move from agriculture into modern economic activities, overall productivity rises and incomes expand. The speed with which this structural transformation takes place is the key factor that differentiates successful countries from unsuccessful ones.


Economic Inequality and HIV in Malawi

Poverty is typically viewed as an important driver of the HIV epidemic, and AIDS is often called a “disease of poverty”. However, several studies have recently shown that poor individuals are not more likely to be HIV positive than wealthy ones, and the poorest of the less developed countries do not have higher infection rates than other less developed countries (Gillespie et al., 2007; Whiteside, 2008, p. 53). Instead, economic inequality, together with gender inequality, has been suggested as a main socioeconomic driver of the spread of HIV (Nattrass, 2008; Whiteside, 2008, Ch. 3; Fox, 2010).


Structural Transformation is a Defining Moment that Leads Ethiopia to Modern Development

Ethiopia has had different defining moments that make her survive for thousand years. One defining moment, for instance, was the war against colonialist in the second half of the nineteenth century, which culminated in the battle of Adwa. Today Ethiopia has to choose another defining moment to ensure the unity of the people and survival of its cultures. This defining moment is the process of structural transformation. In this paper I will try to offer a new conceptual approach to the current political discussion on Ethiopia, centered on the notion of structural transformation

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Spotlight on Ethiopia

Ethiopia’s national child mortality rate fell from 204 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 64 in 2013, meeting its MDG 4 target ahead of schedule. The inequality picture is mixed. inequalities have been falling or remaining static between economic, urban/rural and ethnic groups since 2000, but regional inequalities are rising. Regional and wealth gaps are closing for most service coverage indicators, although they remain worryingly high for some services. skilled birth attendance is 22 times higher in the richest wealth quintile than the poorest, and 12 times higher in Addis ababa (84%) than in the afar region (7%). Ethiopia ranks 28 out of 31 countdown countries for equity in coverage of eight core MNCH interventions. While many poorly performing regions accelerated progress across MDG 4 indicators between 2005 and 2011 much faster than regions that are further ahead, regional progress is still extremely diverse. for example, coverage of DPT3 vaccination quadrupled in the Somali region, albeit from a very low base, but remained static in Oromiya.

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Gender Inequality and HIV/AIDS in Lesotho

The purpose of this article, drawing from existing literature, is to traverse gender inequality among the Basotho (a tribe in the southern African country called Lesotho) in the era of HIV/ AIDS. Several studies portray gender and HIV/ AIDS – which is a human disease, as having a very strong and critical relationship with human behaviour and the way people respond to health challenges (Kimaryo et al. 2004; OwusuAmpomah et al. 2009). We draw from Meade and Earikson’s (2000) human disease ecology framework. Human disease ecology approaches the geography of disease from an ecological viewpoint. Ecology is the scientific study of the relationship of organisms to each other and to their environment. Disease ecology can thus be interpreted as the study of how disease interacts with humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Meade and Earickson (2000:21) further point out that “the human ecology of disease is concerned with the ways human behaviour, in its cultural and socio-economic context, interacts with environmental conditions to produce or prevent disease among susceptible people”


Burundi Case Study

The political situation in Burundi is typical of a post-conflict country that is striving to reconcile the need to consolidate the newly restored peace and responding to the basic needs and demands of the population, while laying the required foundation for sustainable development.
Burundi is one of the world’s poorest countries, with a very low Human Development Index ranking (185th out of 187 countries). As a result of difficulties in access to employment and production factors, women are more affected by poverty than men.
Support from the international community is subject to conditions due to concerns about governance in public administration, including corruption, embezzlement, lack of transparency in recruitment processes, excessive politicization of public administration, etc.


Burundi Country Strategy Paper

1.1 The 2012-2016 Burundi Country Strategy Paper (CSP) evaluates the development perspectives and challenges facing the country and the role the Bank can play, in close collaboration with the Government of Burundi (GoB) and development partners, in supporting the country to meet its development objectives; as articulated in the Burundi Vision 2025. This CSP aims to support Burundi exit the post-conflict situation and strengthen the outcomes achieved in the previous CSP which focused on governance and job creation through infrastructure development and targeted interventions in agriculture.


Tanzania’s Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural Transformation

This paper examines whether their has been any inter-temporal shift in Tanzania’s comparative advantage and what that says about the structural transformation of the economy. This assessment is done based on Tanzania’s revealed comparative advantage between 2001/2002 and 2011

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A Study on Transforming Agriculture

The Tanzania Development Vision 2025 (TDV) envisages transforming the economy from a predominantly agricultural one with low productivity to a diversified and semi-industrial economy with a modern rural sector and high productivity in agricultural production which generates reasonably high incomes and ensures food security and food self-sufficiency. Therefore to facilitate realization of the objectives and targets under the vision, a study was commissioned to identify means and ways of transforming agriculture from its backward position to a modern state characterized by high production capacity coupled with greater output, good quality products and high return to farmers and to the country as a whole. The report gives a diagnostic analysis of the status of agriculture in Tanzania, including its performance over the last thirty years. It examines the sector’s contribution to the economy, factors behind its poor performance and provides major strategic options for transforming current agriculture status


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