Since the election of the Movement for Multi-party Democracy (MMD) government in 1991, the Zambian authorities have implemented sweeping economic reforms. In addition to undertaking a sharp stabilisation programme early in the decade, the government have implemented reforms in agricultural marketing, a large privatisation programme, sweeping trade policy reforms and, more recently, public sector reform. The implementation of stabilisation and structural reforms in any country can have a major impact upon poverty and inequality. In order to obtain an accurate view of these effects, it is necessary to have nationally representative household survey data from both before and after the reform episode. Fortunately, there were four such surveys in Zambia during the 1990s ñ the first in 1991 coincided with the election of the new government, and further surveys were conducted in 1993, 1996 and 1998. This paper reanalyses the household survey data from three of these surveys in order to chart the evolution of poverty and inequality during the 1990s. In addition, the economic policies pursued during the 1990s are described in detail, enabling linkages to be drawn between the policies implemented and the observed changes in poverty and inequality.
This document is for anyone who is working to transform and develop South Africa, but particularly for policy makers and trainers. It is the Commission on Gender Equality’s (CGE) first attempt to formulate a framework which the commission believes we need to be working within if we are to promote and protect gender equality, as the Constitution demands. Whether you are familiar with the theories and practices of gender equality or completely new to them, this document will be useful to you. If you are involved in funding, policy-making, training, research or on-the-ground projects, it will help you make sure that you take women’s particular needs into account and that women and men are equal beneficiaries of your work. This document aims to provide information and to get you thinking. The CGE hopes it will get you talking too.
It has been questioned whether demographic surveillance system(DSS)sites,which normally operate in relatively small, homogeneous areas, and in relatively small populations of the order of 100,000 people,are large enough to examine inequalities and inequities in health.The Rufiji DSS in Tanzania has attempted to apply principal components analysis(PCA)to asset and other house hold data collected in the routine course of a DSS,to rank individuals according to a household socio-economic index and investigate whether this predicts health system access or outcomes.
Civil wars are a major source of poverty. Eight of the 10 countries with the worst human development index (HDI), and similarly eight out of 10 countries with the lowest GNP per capita, have had major civil wars in the recent past.1 About half of low-income countries have been subject to major political violence. Causality works both ways, as low incomes lead to conditions that are conducive to violence.2 But the evidence suggests that major civil wars are associated with markedly worse performance in economic growth, food production per capita and human indicators, such as infant mortality rates, school enrolment, and so on.3 Hence, any comprehensive strategy to tackle poverty must give the prevention of conict a central place. Yet in the past this has not been so. Conict prevention has, of course, been regarded as desirable as a political objective, but it has not been part of the poverty reduction or human development agendas. For example, the World Bank’s Poverty Reduction Strategy documents do not deal centrally (and often not at all) with this issue, nor has the UNDP’s Human Development Report treated it as a focal point (UNDP, various years; World Bank, 1998; Binswanger & Landell-Mills, 1995). Partly for this reason, development strategies in general and anti-poverty policies in particular have tended to neglect issues related to conict. Yet recognizing prevention as central for poor societies may alter the design of policies substantially. The aim of this paper is to explore how economic and social policy-making would be affected by focusing on conict prevention, in addition to other development questions, in low-income countries. This paper starts from the premise that crisis prevention is essential for poverty reduction as well as to alleviate immediate human suffering; and that policies aimed at reducing political violence are needed for all low-income countries given their high propensity to strife. Similar policies are also needed for some middle-income countries, but the incidence of civil war is substantially lower among them, partly re ecting the fact that they succeededin becoming middle-income becausethey had avoided conict.
This paper summarizes eight country studies of inequality in the health sector. The analysis uses household data to examine the distribution of service use and health expenditures. Each study divides the population into income quintiles, estimated using consumption expenditures. The studies measure inequality in the use of and spending on health services. Richer groups are bound to have a higher probability of obtaining care when sick , are more likely to be seen by a doctor, and have a higher probability of reviving medicines when they are all ill , than the poorer groups . The richer also spend more in absolute terms on care. In several instances, there are unexpected findings. There is no consistent pattern in the use of private providers. Richer households do not devote a consistently higher percentage of their consumption expenditures to health care. The analyses indicate that intuition concerning inequalities could result in misguided decisions .It would thus be worthwhile to measure inequality to inform policy making. Additional research could be performed using common methodology for the collection of data and applying more sophisticated analytical techniques. These analyses could be used to measure the impact of health policy changes in inequality.
Accounts by journalists of war in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries ( Central African Republic , Cote d Ivoire , Ghana, Kenya , Mali , Namibia , Niger , Rwanda , Senegal , Uganda and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health ans survival chances , compared to the rest of the national population as a result of their geographical location .
Studies on urban-rural mortality differentials in Sub-Saharan Africa show that overall mortality, and infant and child mortality in particular, is generally lower in urbanthan in rural areas. Various factors account for this, including the high concentration of salaried workers (who generally have higher incomes) in urban centers, better education in urban areas, the concentration of public infrastructure in urban areas that provides sanitation services, including water supply, household waste and excreta removal and disinfection, and hospital infrastructure, with health conditions that are more favorable in urban than in rural areas.
This paper discusses the factors likely to explain the observed urban-rural differences in infant and child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper addresses five points: the first two discusses the factors likely to be associated with excess urban mortality; the third assesses recent trends in infant and child mortality in a few selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa; the fourth point deals with the determinants of infant and child mortality, with emphasis on the role of urban-rural residence as a differentiating factor. The last point provides the most salient results and a few recommendations
This book analyses principle of equality from different angles, bearing in mind the South African and Belgian experiences in this area. Firstly, a general overview is given of the different sources of human rights law in the Belgian and South African legal system, the relation between international and national law, the direct applicability and third party-applicability of rights and freedoms in the legal order(s), and the implementation mechanisms available both in Belgium and South Africa. Secondly, the principle of equality, as found in the Belgian Constitution, in the European Convention on Human Rights and in the South African Constitution, and the South African Antidiscrimination Bill are analyzed. Finally, the principle of equality is being studied from a thematic perspective, i.e. with regard to the use of languages and from a gender perspective. The book is concluded with a contribution on the access to medical and health care in South Africa.