This research investigates the differences in the inflation rates experienced by different types of households. Instead of using income/expenditure to group households, various labour market and household structure characteristics are used. The groups analysed include grant recipient households, unskilled worker households, unionised worker households and households with children. Significant differences between the group-specific and all urban inflation rates may suggest the need for using group-specific price indices in applications where the purchasing power of these households is to be preserved. The paper also paper investigates the extent to which the all urban inflation rate is representative of individual households, using household-specific inflation rates. The paper analyses the distribution of household-specific inflation rates relative to the all urban inflation rate, as well as the relationship between the level of the overall inflation rate and the dispersion of household-level inflation rates.
This paper is to explore, conceptually and empirically, the levels and relative inequalities in landownership between women and men in African countries. The first section of the paper engages in a conceptual discussion of how to measure gendered land outcomes, what ownership and control mean in different contexts, and why attention to these factors is important for the development of gender and land statistics. The second section of the paper systematically reviews existing evidence from microlevel large sample studies by region to summarize recent trends in land access, ownership, and control by sex. The third section presents new statistics from a variety of nationally representative and large-scale unpublished data on gender and land in Africa. Results provide not only a nuanced understanding of the importance of measuring land indicators for gendered development in Africa and globally but also new statistics on a variety of land outcomes to aid stakeholders in the discussion of gender-land inequalities
|This paper examines the trend in post-Apartheid earnings inequality in South Africa. By combining data sets, the paper is able to analyze the trend of the whole periods 1995-2004. Earnings inequality rose sharply during 1995-1999 and then declined marginally, but remained high, during 2000-2004. A dramatic rise in unemployment was the driving force in exacerbating earning inequality in the 1990s. Unemployment begun to level off in 2000s but remained at a high rate. An unprecedented influx of new entrants into the formal labor market in the 1990s put downward pressure on average real wages, affecting workers both in the middle of the distribution and towards the bottom.|
This paper provides some answers to this question and outlines future research on mitigation and inequality. The question is relevant, because developing countries have come under growing pressure to introduce mitigation actions that help to reduce dangerous greenhouse gas emissions. These mitigation actions need to be ‘nationally appropriate’ (UNFCCC 2007)and different from those in the developed countries, taking the economic structures, poverty and inequalities into account. Mitigating emissions and reducing poverty at the same time sharpens the trade-off. Governments need to decide on expenditure of limited resources on poverty or mitigation. According to previous research the need for such a trade-off decreases when countries become richer (Ravallion et al. 2000).This implies that governments have a growing option to achieve both ends.
Analysis: South Africa is battling the curse of inequality. Inequality impacts profoundly on other key issues, exacerbating social ills, eroding community cohesion, fanning societal conflict and, for us, injects a sense of urgency into next year’s national elections.
While the quantitative studies on horizontal inequalities and violent conflict have contributed enormously towards establishing the relationship between these two concepts, the operationalization of horizontal inequalities in objective terms is to some extent problematic because people act on the basis of their perceptions of the world they live in, and these perceptions may differ substantially from the ‘objective’ reality. The question to what extent objective and subjective horizontal inequalities are consistent in practice is an important empirical question, which this paper explores in five African countries: Ghana, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Nigeria and Kenya.
While average living standards are usually higher in urban areas, economic growth does not result in prosperity for all. Inequality among city dwellers is a potential source of frustration which could lead to increased risk of urban violence, especially if certain groups are underprivileged and suffer from social exclusion. According to common beliefs, rural-to-urban migrants are likely to suffer from relative deprivation and marginalization, which may in turn increase the potential for political radicalization and unrest. This paper assesses this claim empirically.
This paper investigates inequalities across the main black ethnic groups in South Africa,who account for near 80% of the country’s population. The paper shows that there is indeed an important ethnic gap in poverty levels of Xhosa and Zulu with respect to Sotho/Tswana. The paper shows that these gaps are largely associated with Xhosa and Zulu having an accumulation of disadvantages in location, demographic structure, education, and labor market outcomes. The analysis of the evolution after the end of the Apartheid shows that the gap might have increased, especially in the case of Zulu
Conference paper submitted for presentation at UNU-WIDER’s conference, held in Helsinki on 20–21 September 2013. This is not a formal publication of UNU-WIDER and may reﬂect work-in-progress
The post-1994 period in the South African economy is characterized, perhaps most powerfully, by the fact that the economy recorded one of its longest periods of positive economic growth in the country’s history. One of the more vexing issues within the economic policy terrain in post-apartheid South Africa though, has been the impact of this consistently positive growth performance on social welfare. Many observers have highlighted the potentially harmful consequences of persistently high levels of poverty and particularly, economic inequality on the quality and sustainability of democracy. The evidence suggests, at best, six key trends which are noteworthy in terms of observing changes and challenges in South Africa’s second decade of democracy. Firstly, it is clear that both absolute and relative levels of poverty have fallen for African- and female-headed households. And it is a result invariant to the choice of poverty line. Secondly though, we continue to show that race and gender remain overwhelming determinants of this poverty profile. Thirdly, the trends in income inequality suggest that one of the world’s most unequal societies has quite possibly become the most unequal.
This paper presents and analyses the estimated indices of human development and poverty in a democratic South Africa (SA). Given the history and the socio-economic realities, as part of the legacy of the political history of SA, it is necessary to examine the HDI and the Human Poverty Index (HPI-1) by population groups and provinces for SA. This paper starts by describing the data used to estimate the indices. It then explains the methodology applied to estimate the various standard human development indices, which is then followed by a detailed review of all the estimates used to calculate the indices for South Africa in particular. Then the composite estimates of the indices and the findings are discussed. Prior to concluding remarks, tentative views on policy responses are presented.