Kenya Vision 2030: An Audit From An Income And Gender Inequalities Perspective

The report is attempt to audit Kenya’s Vision 2030 from both an income inequalities and a gender inequalities perspective, and to assess the ability of the Vision to respond to both of these persistent development challenges. The publication is intended to help build understandings of government actors engaged in development planning and resource allocation, as well as their partners in civil society and the private sector, on the impacts of inequalities on development performance generally and specifically.

East African Integration

This study looks at equity in four sectors: Trade, Media, Education, and Labour. Differing levels of development among the partner states and their respective economies, and differing policies in the various sectors of these countries, have and will inevitably result in imbalances. However, it is the manner in which these asymmetries are managed – in the distribution of benefits and costs, and the sensitivity we demonstrate when they occur that will determine their disruptive or constructive effect. As the regional economies continue to grow, as businesses and firms continue to expand, the EAC and its countries must confront the question of inequality and poverty. Investing heavily in the education, which is a natural equalizer, is vital.

What lies behind gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania

Within sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately at risk for acquiring and having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is important to clarify whether gender inequalities in HIV prevalence in this region are explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors, differences in the effects of these risk factors or some combination of both. This study uses an extension of the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania using data from the demographic and health and AIDS indicator surveys. The study finds that female gender was associated with a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya and Lesotho but not in Tanzania

Relationship between Objective and Subjective Horizontal Inequalities: Evidence from five African countries.

While the quantitative studies on horizontal inequalities and violent conflict have contributed enormously towards establishing the relationship between these two concepts, the operationalization of horizontal inequalities in objective terms is to some extent problematic because people act on the basis of their perceptions of the world they live in, and these perceptions may differ substantially from the ‘objective’ reality. The question to what extent objective and subjective horizontal inequalities are consistent in practice is an important empirical question, which this paper explores in five African countries: Ghana, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Nigeria and Kenya.

In-Migration, Inequality and Urban Violence City-level evidence from African and Asian household surveys

While average living standards are usually higher in urban areas, economic growth does not result in prosperity for all. Inequality among city dwellers is a potential source of frustration which could lead to increased risk of urban violence, especially if certain groups are underprivileged and suffer from social exclusion. According to common beliefs, rural-to-urban migrants are likely to suffer from relative deprivation and marginalization, which may in turn increase the potential for political radicalization and unrest. This paper assesses this claim empirically.

Institutions, Pro-poor Growth and Inequality in Kenya

The study looks at study the poverty-economic growth nexus in Kenya using the Ravallion-Datt-Shapley approach to decompose changes in poverty into growth and redistribution components; and link institutional factors to poverty and inequality. Pro-poor growth indices and growth incidence curves are used to assess whether economic growth between 1994 and 2006 was pro-poor. The study finds that find that changes in mean income, rather than redistribution accounted for the largest variation in poverty; and establish that economic growth in Kenya is not always accompanied by poverty reduction. In particular, growth was pro-poor over 1997–2006 but less so over 1994–1997; and there are instances where growth seems to have been pro-rich. Furthermore, we find that access to fuel, water, and educational attainment have the largest positive impacts on levels and growth in well-being and are key drivers of inequality. Institutional endowment as well as access to  institutional services has important implications for pro-poor growth in Kenya.

Decomposition of Regional Inequality in Rural Kenya

This paper decomposes changes in total income inequality into structural, pure inequality and interactive effects. An attempt is made to determine the contribution of different income sources to overall income inequality, and change in their relative importance over four periods─1997, 2000, 2004 and 2007. The Gini index is used as the measure of inequality. The results reveal that although overall income inequality in rural Kenya decreased substantially, the magnitude and sign of inequality change varied between periods and across agro-ecological zones. The overall decline was due to reduction in pure inequality effects associated with crop income and formal wages. However, there was a change in direction of income change after 1997-2000 period. During 2000-2007, structural effects largely contributed to the declining trend in income inequality. The driving force underlying the observed decline was change in crop income inequality

Readings on Equality in Kenya: Sectoral Dynamics and Perspectives. Governance Institutions and Inequality in Kenya

Governance Institutions and Inequality in Kenya.

This chapter surveys the link between governance and inequalities, tracing the evolution of the Kenyan state and its institutions, and assesses how post-independence politics gave rise to inequities. The ethnic composition of Cabinets is assessed over different regimes and political epochs. The author notes that the need to take care of regional interests, and the number of the large ethnic groups, has informed political governance in Kenya and greatly informed the logic and character of forming governments

Poverty, Growth, and Income Distribution in Kenya: A SAM Perspective

This study seeks to highlight the level of income inequality in Kenya and its implications on various poverty reduction policies. The 2003 Kenya SAM is used to develop a multiplier simulation model which tracks the linkages among demand-driven shocks and economic growth, income generation, and income distribution for different economic groups. In the first section of our multiplier analysis, we determine the major sectors that can be used to promote generalized economic development in Kenya. The trade, hospitality (hotels and restaurants), manufacturing, and agricultural sectors play the highest role in the development of Kenya’s domestic economy.

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