Ethiopia’s structural change has yielded impressive economic growth. With various forms of inequalities weakening the poverty reducing impact of this growth, there is increasing pressure for equitable and shared growth. This article investigates the forms of inequalities in Ethiopia and offers possible remedies. It shows that urban inequality remains higher than rural inequality, despite a slight narrowing because of favourable pricing for agricultural commodities and a large-scale social safety net programme. Key to addressing inequality is: sustaining the social protection intervention; providing decent jobs; enhancing opportunity; and fair representation.
Universally, early marriage is commonly classified as union formations by children under the age of 18 (“UNICEF”, 2005).It is a practice which affects mostly girls in developing countries. One of the latest reports by UNFPA (2012) states that; in 2010, there were over 67 million women between ages 20 and 24 who had been married before 18 in developing countries (excluding China). Moreover, in the same report it is projected that, if the present situation continues, more than 14 million girls under the age of 18 will become married each year within the next decade. While Asia and Africa are the two continents where the practice is most common, it is also possible to witness early marriage victims in almost every developing country around the world. Ethiopia is one of the 41 countries where early marriage had been experienced by more than 30% of women who were between 20 and 24 years old in 2011 (“UNFPA”, 2012, pp.23).
Poverty reduction is the core objective of the Ethiopian government. Economic growth is the principal, but not the only means to this objective. This policy approach raises fundamental questions: (1) what are the mechanisms and conditions by which economic growth translates into poverty reduction? (2) How do initial poverty and inequality affect the prospect for sustained and rapid economic growth? And (3) what are the links among economic growth, income distribution and poverty in the short and long term? This paper is aimed at addressing these questions
Economic globalization can be evaluated with reference to at least three dimensions:trade, private capital flows, and migration. For each of these dimensions, pathways can be identified through which economic globalization can help or hurt poor people. For example, exports of labor-intensive goods have the potential of supporting the incomes of poor people, but imports of armaments can have disastrous impacts,especially for poor children. Capital inflows in the form of FDI can enhance employment and technological learning, but unwise bond finance and commercial bank lending can precipitate crises with devastating effects for poor people.Sorting out the positive and negative impacts of increased globalization from the point of view of poor people is therefore of great importance. This paper attempts to do so using the particular circumstances of Ethiopia as a central reference point
The question of gender in education began to intrigue research and policy attention since last four decades. The interest ever since was to reduce gender disparity in education by promoting equal erudition of females with males. Despite the advocacy and some promising scenario, gender disparity in education is still continuing in favor of males in many countries of the world, particularly in Africa (Bunyi, 2004; FAWE, 2002). As such, the MDGs, “To
eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education [by] 2005 and in all levels by 2015”, would less likely be achieved. Therefore, the need for research is comprehensible. The low participation of girls in tertiary education in Africa is attributed to many factors which include social and structural impediments such as sexual harassment and gender-blind institutional structures and leadership (FAWE, 2002). Sexual harassment stands for
unwelcome and unwanted sexual behaviors which are judged by the recipient(s) to have resulted in mental, physical, and social discomfort and even interference with academic performance (FAWE, 2002).
Ethiopia’s constitution and national policies are consistent with international legal instruments on gender equality, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Beijing Platform of Action, the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Ethiopian constitution (Box 3.1) guarantees the rights of women as equal to those of men in all spheres including equality in marriage, the right to equal employment, and rights to maternity leave with pay, the right to acquire, administer, control, use and transfer property, with emphasis on land and inheritance issues and the right to access family planning and education. Ethiopia is therefore making several efforts to strengthen national structures for achieving gender parity.
In its review of Ethiopia’s economy, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has indicated that Ethiopia has been attaining economic growth for the past seven years. In addition, the IMF highlights that the lifestyle of the Ethiopian people has been getting better for the last two decades. In the same vein, the Economist indicated that Ethiopia has become the fifth fastest growing economy in the world (for a review see, Desta, 2010).
Child labour, Gender Equality and Rural/ Urban Disparities. How can Ethiopia’s national development stategies best address negative pill-over impacts on child education and well-being?
This paper analyses the extent to which the policy prescriptions and implementations of the Ethiopian Development and Power Reduction Program(SDPRP). (2002-2005) are impacting poor children’s time usage- namely how thier time is divided between eductaion, work activities and play.
Ethiopia is amongst the poorest and most educationally disadvantaged countries in the world. Based on 1993/94 data when the primary gross enrolment ratio (GER) was just 30 percent for boys and 19 percent for girls, it was predicted that ‘inspite of recent enrolment increases, with no other changes to admission rates or to progression rates within the system, by 2008/09 almost two-thirds of the school-aged population would still remain out of primary school, and the gender gap would worsen’ (Rose et al 1997: 136). Since this time, considerable efforts have been made to improve access to schooling and, in particular, to target girls’ enrolment. In addition, political will at the highest level has been evident, an important ingredient to ensure the success of gender interventions in education. As the paper will show, considerable progress has occurred in improving overall enrolment, beyond expectations. However, despite ongoing efforts, the gender gap has not narrowed, although there are hopeful signs for improvement over the next decade. The paper will examine these trends, and consider interventions that have occurred over the last decade to explore whether it is possible for gender equality in primary education to become a reality in Ethiopia.
The overarching importance of trade has long been recognized as a key element of sustainable development in both developed and developing countries. Inspired by the gains from trade, countries have long adopted an outward looking, export-oriented development approach aiming at restoring internal and external economic stability and enhancing efficiency of resource allocation (Berg and Krueger, 2003). Trade liberalization is seen as a means of achieving industrialization and modernization through securing economies of scale, market access, and trade expansion.