This article analyzes forms, structure, drivers and Implications of inequalities in Ghana; examines its political economy and suggests remedial policy options and challenges. Regarding economic inequalities, it shows that despite a general reduction in the incidence of income poverty, its depth has increased: with a wider income distribution gap between the poorest and richest households; marked disparities between the well-endowed South and the impoverished North; and a gendered bias in the distribution of wealth assets. Overall, the non-diversified nature of Ghana’s recent rapid growth has not boosted employment or reduced inequalities.
The main objective of this country case study is to provide information on the various forms of inequalities in Ghana, their structure, drivers and implications, as well as, to examine a range of policy options and lessons. Following this introduction, the rest of the sections is organised as follows. Section Two presents an analysis of key domains of inequalities in Ghana, focusing on the nature, dynamics and main drivers. Section Three looks at the political economy of inequalities in Ghana, emphasizing the role of colonial, political and traditional power, as well as challenges. A brief overview of data availability and challenges in accessing information is presented in Section Four. Section Five assesses the recent policy interventions and responses in addressing inequalities, with special emphasis on how the agenda for structural economic and social transformation might address inequalities. Summary of lessons learnt and policy challenges concludes the study in Section Six.The study is primarily based on secondary data sources including Ghana’s population censuses (2000 and 2010) and a host of the nationally representative sample surveys conducted in Ghana .