Inequalities and Structural Transformation in Tanzania

Inequalities and Structural Transformation in Tanzania

This article describes the various domains in which inequality manifests itself in Tanzania. It outlines the key drivers of inequalities as including wide income gaps, unemployment and a collusion between political and businesses elites that creates political capture and patronage, thus fueling corruption and diverting resources from essential services. The article points out a correlation between access to education and income inequality, and highlights the fact that, despite marginal reduction in poverty, inequality is on the rise.

 

Inequality in Uganda: Issues for discussion and further research

Inequality in Uganda: Issues for discussion and further research

For the past two decades the degree of inequality in Uganda has been variable, mostly on the increase. By 2009, the country’s richest 10 percent earned 2.3 times more than the poorest 40 percent. While some progress may have been made in reducing income poverty during this same period, existing figures mask a lot of poverty dynamics and characteristics. With a very low poverty line an erroneous picture is given on the extent of deprivation. Second, the distribution of consumption in Uganda is very flat, implying that many households that are presumed to have ‘escaped’ poverty have a very high level of vulnerability.

 

Impact of Macroeconomic, Institutional and Structural Factors on Inequality in South Africa

Impact of Macroeconomic, Institutional and Structural Factors on Inequality in South Africa

Income inequality especially remains high in South Africa. This article investigates the impact of macro-economic, institutional and structural factors on inequality across the nine provinces of South Africa. Using a panel data econometric technique, the determinants/ drivers of inequalities are estimated. The rate of openness (globalization) of an economy, the level of financial inclusion, the status of physical infrastructure, governance indicators, and socioeconomic and institutional factors are explored as explanatory variables. The article concludes with a presentation of the challenges and policy options required to address social and economic inequalities in South Africa.

Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation: The case of Senegal

Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation: The case of Senegal

This article analyzes the key domains of inequalities in Senegal. It underscores the high level of gender disparity in the distribution of unemployment that disproportionately affects women. A relatively efficient education system is nevertheless undermined by large geographically defined access differentials. In terms of infrastructure, the capital Dakar enjoys better access to transportation, schools and health facilities in comparison with rural and other urban zones. Agriculture and informal trade are crucial for reducing youth unemployment

Structural Transformation and Inequality: Evidence from Nigeria

Structural Transformation and Inequality: Evidence from Nigeria

This article highlights that the persistent high levels of poverty and inequality are being mainly propelled by the structure of the Nigerian economy and the inability of annual public expenditure, despite its large size, to guarantee improved access to functional facilities and social services. It also illustrates how the emerging structural transformation, led by the services sector, needs to be consolidated and properly managed in order to promote sustainable development, including the eradication of poverty and the reduction of inequality.

 

The Fading Developmental State: Growing inequality in Mauritius

The Fading Developmental State: Growing inequality in Mauritius

The small multi-ethnic island state of Mauritius has made great strides and embraced the notion of equal opportunity for all, although this has not always been translated in practice. This article
argues that, while the first wave of structural transformation contributed to economic growth and employment opportunities for citizens, development has not been equitable, especially with respect to Mauritians of African origin. The quest for a second wave of sustainable transformation may not be easy and the country needs to rethink its model of development and ensure that the latter is infused with ethical and human centred governance.

 

 

Political Drivers of Inequality in Kenya

Political Drivers of Inequality in Kenya

This article highlights the nature, domains and responses to inequalities in Kenya in the context of the current socio-economic and political transformational processes shaping the country’s destiny. It describes the character and drivers of inequalities and analyses the political, policy, programmatic and constitutional measures that have been instituted to address them. It also highlights lessons learnt and challenges in addressing inequalities while sketching their possible resolution.

 

 

 

Inclusive Growth and Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation: Evidence from Ethiopia

Inclusive Growth and Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation: Evidence from Ethiopia

Ethiopia’s structural change has yielded impressive economic growth. With various forms of inequalities weakening the poverty reducing impact of this growth, there is increasing pressure for equitable and shared growth. This article investigates the forms of inequalities in Ethiopia and offers possible remedies. It shows that urban inequality remains higher than rural inequality, despite a slight narrowing because of favourable pricing for agricultural commodities and a large-scale social safety net programme. Key to addressing inequality is: sustaining the social protection intervention; providing decent jobs; enhancing opportunity; and fair representation.

 

 

Nature and Dynamics of Inequalities in Ghana

Nature and Dynamics of Inequalities in Ghana

This article analyzes forms, structure, drivers and Implications of inequalities in Ghana; examines its political economy and suggests remedial policy options and challenges. Regarding economic inequalities, it shows that despite a general reduction in the incidence of income poverty, its depth has increased: with a wider income distribution gap between the poorest and richest households; marked disparities between the well-endowed South and the impoverished North; and a gendered bias in the distribution of wealth assets. Overall, the non-diversified nature of Ghana’s recent rapid growth has not boosted employment or reduced inequalities.
 

Inequality in sub-Saharan Africa

Inequality in sub-Saharan Africa

 This paper reviews recent research on income and non-income inequalities within countries in sub-Saharan Africa. It concentrates on research conducted by national and regional institutions and by international agencies in the region. Research on income inequality in Africa is a recent phenomenon. Most studies began in the early 1990s, with the increased availability of household budget surveys for countries in the region. The advent of PRSPs and MDGs, which moved the debate towards issues of pro-poor growth, also required discussion on the nature and trends of income inequality. Another reason was the lessons coming from a number of countries that although growth may be necessary, it was not sufficient to reduce poverty.

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