Rural poverty rates in Zambia have remained very high, at 80%, over the past decade and a half, whilst urban poverty rates have declined, from 49% in 1991 to 34% in 2006. Redressing this high rural poverty rate remains a government priority in the National Development Programs. However, solutions have proven elusive. Solid empirically based information on dynamics that have improved the welfare of small-scale farm households in Zambia, combined with an agenda for disseminating this information in public discourse, offer prospects for generating a more transparent and pro-poor policy orientation.
The 10th annual SIRC/LuHAF conference on the Horn of Africa focused on the role of women in promoting peace and development, and set out to:Raise awareness of women’s needs and situation in the Horn of Africa, Raise awareness of Horn of African governments’ social service expenditures,Raise awareness of UNSCR 1325 and 1820 in a Horn of African context,Promote the inclusion of Horn of African women in the decision-making positions in their respective governments, as well as in regional and international organizations,Promote women’s (memberships) positions in governmental decision-making institutions,Promote the participation of Horn of African women in conflict prevention and resolution processes,Promote networking between Horn of African women’s peace organizations, and other stakeholders and Promote maintenance and protection of the due process of law and constitutionalism in the Horn of Africa
Sudan is in a critical political, socio-economic and demographic transition, particularly in the post-cessation era, together with emerging national opportunities and challenges vis-à-vis the changing governance in the Arab region and the internationally down-turning economies. The newly two established post-cessation countries (Sudan and Southern Sudan) have serious disputes and a long trail to reach a peaceful coexistence. Although the Government has recently signed Peace Agreement in Doha with some of the Darfuri rebel movements, brutal fighting is perpetual in South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and some pockets in Darfur.
Since long enhancing women empowerment is expressed in the international literature to overcome gender gap or gender-based inequality which is a wide spread phenomenon that influences the majority of the world’s cultures, religions, nations and income groups. Yet gender discrepancies and their evolution over time manifested themselves in different ways. Hence, assessment of gender gap and development of framework for capturing the magnitude of these disparities are most important so as to design effective measures for reducing them. The rationale for the recent growing interest and increasing concern in the international literature on reducing the gender gap and achieving gender equality is probably related to and consistent with the increasing commitment of the international community towards fulfilling the UN-UNDP-HDR- Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) including the achievement of gender equality between women and men and empowerment of women.
The newly-independent country of South Sudan is anchored to the bottom of the world league table for education. More than half of its primary school age children – over 1 million in total – are out of school. Young girls are more likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth than to graduate from primary school. South Sudan’s young people face restricted opportunities for the education they need to build a better future for themselves and their country. It is time for the world to come together and change this picture.
UNHCR’s leading role with refugees in countries of asylum is not in doubt. However, when refugees return to their countries of origin – which are often trying to recover from the devastation of war – donors do not agree on the extent of UNHCR’s involvement in reintegration activities. Some donors say that UNHCR is not a development agency and reintegration is not its job while others say that UNHCR should be helping devastated countries to absorb returning refugees by building schools and health centres. After decades of discussion about closing the gap between relief and development the international community needs to settle this problem once and for all. Development agencies have a different sense of urgency, timing and culture and they do not come onto the scene soon enough. UNHCR has a crucial reintegration role to play during transitional recovery periods.
Household expenditure surveys, like the Income and Expenditure Survey (IES) and Living Conditions Survey (LCS), are fundamental components to a survey programme of any statistical agency. They are an essential building block for the consumer price index (CPI) to stay current with the changing spending and consumption patterns of the country and are the best sources of data for the measurement of money-metric poverty and inequality. The consistent approach to the collection of expenditure data through these tools since the IES 2005/2006 allows us to measure trends in the poverty situation of the country between 2006 and 2011.
The Southern African region is characterised by unacceptable high levels of unemployment, poverty and inequality. In many cases, poverty and inequality are on the increase, particularly in countries in crisis such as Zimbabwe and Swaziland. Neither agricultural economies such as Malawi nor resource-rich countries such as Namibia, South Africa and Angola have been able to significantly reduce wealth gaps and the rates of poverty and unemployment.
This report constitutes the South African report for a comparative research project on social dialogue and gender equality being coordinated by the Industrial and Employment Relations Departments (DIALOGUE) of the International Labour Office (ILO). The research project aims to deepen knowledge on how gender equality issues are promote through social dialogue at the national level. The research project is being undertaken as a follow-up of the Conclusions of the Committee on Gender Equality adopted at the 98th Sessions of the International Labour Conference in June 2009 (International Labour Conference, 2009).
Poverty is a broad concept with many faces that mirror dimensions of human welfare. It goes beyond inadequate food or income to access of individuals to basic nutrition, health, education and skills, improved livelihood, good housing conditions, clean water,social participation and political or religious freedom that are such welfare dimensions. Pronounced shortage or deprivation in each of these has a poverty face and their sum symbolizes the broad concept of human development to which a focus on deprivation is fundamental. Yet, the most commonly addressed poverty dimensions are income (or food) poverty and human poverty that are expressed via measured indicators.